John Hollond had a chequered career as a naval administrator, punctuated by his charges of corruption against his colleagues, circulated in these two manuscripts, and their counter-charges against him, but his Discourses are uniquely informative. There is also printed Sir Robert Slyngesbie’s Discourse of the Navy, written in 1660 when he had just become Controller for the information of Charles II, and a number of other documents which amplify or explain Hollond’s narrative
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ABUSES, caused by ignorance and by-ends, 55 ; general summary of, 261-2 Accounts should be exactly audited, 340 Admiral, the Lord, supreme governor of the navy, 10, 89 ; orders the supply of victuals, 66; his power blasted by the Parliament, 281 ; did not impose orders on the commissioners of the navy, 292, 299; determined the pay of generals, 294 ; claimed the cast ships, 333 ; commissioned to inquire into disorders, 336 Admirals, charges against, 131-3 Alderne, Captain Thomas, afterwards Major, chief of the victualling, 124-5 j victualling contractor, 158, 297 ; large sums imprested to, 349 ; dead, and no account rendered, ib. Alexander, Sir William, 357 Allcock, Stephen, the victualler, 315 Anchor-forges in the State’s yards, 244 ; reasons for, ib. ; disadvantageous to the service, 245 ; abuses not foreseen, 251 Anchors, method of buying, 252 ; price of, 252-6 Anchors, Spanish, left in 1639, claimed by the Earl of Northumberland, 289, and sold, 290 Andrewes, Nathaniel, victualling contractor, 158, 297 Andrews, Giles, purveyor of timber, 223 Andrews, Thomas, member of the committee of merchants, 122 Apsley, Sir Alien, surveyor of victuals, 171 Arundel, Earl of, 361 Auditor of the stores unnecessary, 100 Avidous = greedy, 192 BADILEY, Richard, general in the Mediterranean, Iviii Ball, a dog called, ticket to, 399 Ball, William, mariner, 357 Balmerino, Lord, Ixxiv Barham, Francis, purveyor of timber, 223 Barker, Thomas, a seaman, 393 Bartholomew babies, 149 Batten, Captain William, surveyor of the navy, revolts from the Parliament, xix; commissioner at Portsmouth, 121 Beale, William, victualling contractor, 158, 297 Becher, Sir William, clerk to the Council, 368 Beef, Irish is inferior, 177 ; leg bones and offal put among, 178 Beer, scarce * water frighted,’ 181 Bence, Alexander, member of the committee of the navy, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixiv Bence, Squire, a member of the committee of the navy, Ixii, Ixiv Bennet, a master’s mate, 371, 386, 392 Bennett, Robert, a master, 383 Berkeley, Lord, 344 Bethell, Slingsby, Ixxi Beverage, 167 4o8 INDEX Bingley, Sir Richard, surveyor, 118, 394, 398 Blackden, Richard, a messenger, xix Blake, Robert, general at sea, xx ; member of the admiralty committee, 115, 133 ; mentioned, 169-171, 273, 339 Boate, Augustine, keeper of the out-stores at Chatham, xii, xiii, 55 Boatswain, his pay is insufficient, 101 Bond, Denis, a member of the committee of the admiralty, xx Bourne, Nehemiah, a commissioner of the navy, xxi, xxii-xxviii, 124 Brett, Jeremy, captain of the Assurance, 367-8, 379, 381, 384-6, 388-9 Broad Arrow, the, order for goods to be marked with, 238 Brooke, John, clerk of the check, x ; his quarrel with Hollond, xi ; dismissed from his post and imprisoned, ib. Brooke, Matthew, clerk of the check at Portsmouth, ix Brouncker, Lord, 338 Brown, Thomas, a timber-merchant, xvii Buck, Sir Peter, of doubtful honesty, xxxvii ; clerk of the acts, 118 Buck, Thomas, his complaint, xliii Buckingham, Duke of, lord high admiral, 114, 330; said to have imposed orders on the commissioners, 293 ; mentioned, 333-4, 377 Burley, John, Captain of the Fifth Whelp, 368-9, 379, 384-5, 3^7 Burrell, Andrewes, a shipwright, Ixi-lxiv Burrell, William, master shipwright, Ixi, 119 ; on the Grand Commission, 118; assistant commissioner, 329; husband for the navy, 334 By, upon the, 116 CABLES of private make are bad, 196 ; are loaded with tar or sand, 197 Candle, sales by the, 284 ; may be quite fair, 285 ; abuses of, 285-8 Captains, charges against, 131-3 ; their duty to protect the seamen, 132 ; in league with the contractors, 172 Carriage by water, rateable by discretion, 63 ; abuses in, 64; unnecessary, enhances the price of stores, 72 Carteret, Captain, afterwards Sir George, xxviii, Ixxii, Ixxiii, Ixxix, 343, 370, 377, 380-2, 384-7, 389 Certificates, the grand cheat of the navy, 271 ; various kinds of, id. colour fraudulent contracts, 272 miracles wrought by, 274 measures to prevent false, 276 Changings, the manifold confusion arising from, 10, n Chaplains’ groats, 348 Charges, presting, great abuses in, 49 Charges, travelling, 46; often excessive, ib. ; doubled or trebled, 48 ; unauthorised, 49 Cherry, Sir F., King’s merchant, 59 Chest at Chatham, the, 6d. per mensem from each man to, 348, not been accounted for, ib. Child, Josiah, 128 Clerk of the acts, same as clerk of the records, his functions, 100 ; called also clerk of the accounts, 327 Clerk of the records, the, one of the four principal officers, 10, 82 Clerk of the survey is an assistant surveyor, 92, 101 ; appointed to each yard, 340 Clerks fittest to govern the navy, 89-93 Clerks of the check, their neglect, 30, 151 ; dishonesty, 38, 101 ;. dead pays to, 54 ; keep a prickbook, 127 ; not to be paid seamen’s wages, 130, 164 ; give vouchers for petty warrants, 162 ; without any effective check, ib. ; have great opportunities for fraud, 339 Coke, Sir John, x, 118, 303, 333,403; INDEX 409 Colpott, Thomas, a boatswain, 123 Commerce, expansion of, 5 Commissary general for victuals, 171 ; his instructions, ib. ; his warrant from the general, id. Commission, the Grand, its design, 118, 336 Commissioners, assistant, necessary at the ports, 83-5 ; were formerly allowed, 85 ; their salary, 86 ; fit men must be chosen, 87 ; their necessary qualifications, 88 ; clerks are most fit, 89-90 ; benefits that will arise from, 95, 98, 101 Commissioners of the admiralty are in the room of a lord admiral, 292 ; have the same power, ib. ; their relation to the commissioners of the navy, 293-5 ; undertake too much, 303 Commissioners of the navy refuse to sign tickets, 128; ought to attend payment of wages, 133 ; are blamed for other men’s faults, 147 ; their complaints ill received, 159 ; wink at abuses, 198 ; turn timber-merchants, 211 ; overpowered by the committee of the navy, 266 ; hire their ships to the navy by false representations, 267-9 » use certificates to cover fraudulent payments, 272; ill consequences of their ignorance or neglect, 275-6 ; buy and sell stores, 280 ; their advertisements for tenders a specious pretence, 281-2 ; give contracts by favour, 283 ; are partners in frauds, 288 ; subordinate to the admiralty, 292 ; resent the interference of the admiralty, 293 ; obey positive orders from the admiralty, 301, great sums have been paid in this way, 302 ; their pay, 306 ; should not be private traders, 309-311 ; merchants ought not to be employed as, 312-15 ; two additional, appointed, yz^passim Commissions of inquiry are often matters of private revenge, 117 Complaints not attended to, 159 Comptroller, the, one of the four principal officers, 10, 82 ; pay of, 306 Contract, work by, 29 ; not the best way of doing work, 35 ; not the cheapest, 36; often impossible, ib. ; work cannot be exactly appraised, ib. ; does not lessen the number of officers in the yards, ib. ; opens the door to many abuses, 37 ; may be made to include private jobs, ib. ; if made with the King’s officers, an abuse, 38-41, instances of this, ib. ; excessive charge for overworks, 43 ; which cannot be valued, ib. ; rope made by, is bad, 75 ; victualling by, hazardous, 155, costly, 156, breeds discontent, ib. ; victualling by, 160; arguments in favour of, ib. ; disadvantageous, 161, 167 ; arguments in favour of making cordage by, 199, the pleader for, should be sent to heaven in a string, ib. ; a, ordered by the admiralty committee to be signed, 295-9, was refused by Hollond, 296 ; ought not to be made with a commissioner, 316 Contractors for timber offer impossibilities, 218-19, and pass inferior timber, 219-20 Contractors for victualling supply bad victuals, 160 ; have had too much influence, 166 ; complaints against, not redressed, ib. ; excuses made for, 168 ; favour shown to, ib. ; can bring pressure on the generals, 172; force pursers to sign false receipts, ib. ; are allowed for loss, 173, on insufficient voucher, ib. ; force the pursers to deal with their own agents, 174; put up offal for victuals, 178, causing the men to desert, 179 ; ought to deliver petty warrant victuals, 182 ; get paid twice over, 185 Cooke, Mr., 55 Cooke, William, one of the four masters, 365, 377-82, 384-8 INDEX Cooper, George, purveyor of timber, 223 Cordage, abuses in respect to, xlix ; Russia, is very bad, 193, is the worst, 194; fraudulent surveys of, ib. ; should be made in the State’s yards, 195 ; of private make is bad, ib. ; wanting in strength, ib. ; of inferior hemp, ib. ; bought from the rope-merchant is not to be trusted, 199 ; may have been ten or twelve years in store, 201 ; may be fakerotten, ib. ; complaints of, in 1656, 202 ; the merchants who supplied it, made inquisitors, 203 Cottington, Lord, 403 Coventry, Sir W., Ixx Coytmor, Robert, clerk to the admiralty committee, xix Crandley, Captain Benjamin, Ixv Crandley, Richard, a commissioner of the navy, xviii, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixv Crane, John, victualler, 315 Cranfield, Sir Lionel, on the Grand Commission, 118 Credit causes increased prices, 71 Creditors ought not to be paid the seamen’s wages, 130 Crew, Randulph, King’s merchant, 59 Crowe, Sir Sackville, 366, 371, 375, 3^7, 399 Customer, a, forbidden to be a merchant, 311, or to have any interest in ships or cargoes, 311-12 Customs, act for regulation of, 117, 120; commission of, 125 DARTMOUTH, Lord, 175 Dead pays, 25; abuse of, 25-6, 140-1 ; as rewards, 53 ; recognised, 140 Dean, forest of, iron-works in, suppressed, 229 Deane, Richard, general at sea, xx, 133, 170, 180, 339 Deane, Sir Anthony, 225, 363 Denbigh, Earl of, 303 Dermott, Richard, muster-master, 339 . Desertion caused by bad victuals, 179 Digby, Sir Kenelm, 329-30, 336, 356-7 Doors, back, ‘thieves in the King’s service,’ 97 Dorset, Earl of, 403 Downing, Captain Joshua, assistant commissioner at Chatham, ix, x, 99 Downing, Mr., master smith, 239 EARNING, Anthony, 186 Eastwick, Stephen, commissioner of customs, 124 Eastwood, Thomas, purveyor of timber, 223 Edisbury, John, clerk of the check at Portsmouth, xi Edisbury, Kenrick, paymaster, afterwards surveyor of the navy, x, xi, 56, 361, 386, 390, 395, 403 Eglinton, Earl of, Ixxiv Eye, the master’s, fattens the horse, 99, M5 FENN, Nicholas, commissioner of victualling, 155 Fleming, Denis, clerk of the acts, xii, 361, 403 Fletcher, Richard, purveyor of timber, 223 Foley, Mr., 231 Fortescue, Nicholas, on the Grand Commission, 118 Fox, Robert, lieutenant of the St. Andrew, 364, 383, 386, 388 Foxcroft, George, commissioner of customs, 125 Franks, Captain, 394, 398 Freeman, Alderman, 334, 335 Freight, the hire of a ship into the State’s service, 264 ; sometimes for the hull only, ib. ; most commonly the merchant pays all, ib. ; great sums of money paid upon this head, 265 ; of merchants’ goods taken by captains of INDEX 411 State’s ships, 353 ; an abuse most fit to be regulated, ib. French, the vaunting of, 7 GAUDEN, Sir Denis, contractor for victualling, 155, 158, 171, 297 Geere, Sir Michael, 357 Generals at sea, charges against, 131-3 ; in league with contractors, 166, 172 ; supply ships under their command with victuals, 169 Gofton, Francis, on the Grand Commission, 118 Goring, Lord, Ixxviii Grant, Charles, 55 Great, by the, 41 Greenwell, William, merchant of London, 75 Grene, Giles, a member of Parliament, Ixvi, 139 Greville, Sir Fulke, afterwards Lord Brooke, treasurer of the navy, 329> 333 Groats. See Chaplains’ HADDOCK, Sir R., commissioner for victualling, 155 Halsted, Robert, contractor for clothes, xv, 388 Hamilton, Captain John, his report on pressed men, 51 Harbie, Job, a merchant, 193 Harvey, Colonel Edmund, commissioner of customs, 124 ; committed to the Tower, 125 Hawkyns, Sir John, charges against, xxxiv Hay ward, Mr., clerk of the survey at Portsmouth, xi Hemp, various kinds of, 188; mixed, is best, 189 ; of different goodness and price, ib. ; musty, will not endure the twist, ib. ; if bad, endangers the lives of the men and the safety of the ships, ib. ; false packing of, 190 ; should be bought by pre-contract, ib. ; buying in open market is uncertain, ib. ; price of, 197 Henry VIII., his establishment of the navy, 327 ; bounty paid by, to shipbuilders, 355 Heydon, Sir John, lieutenant of the ordnance, 100 Hildesley, Mark, commissioner of customs, 124 Holborn, Richard, 97 Hollond, John, entered the service of the navy, ix, I ; clerk to Capt. Downing, ix ; paymaster of the navy, x; has a grudge against Brooke, xii ; is accused by the Earl of Northumberland, xiv, xv ; is engaged in the timber trade, xvii, xviii, 209-10, 217-18 ; surveyor of the navy, xix, 121 ; a commissioner of the navy, xx ; his feeling for the seamen, xxi, xxii, 107, no; hostile to the Petts, xxiii-xxiv; resigns, xxvi, 295-6 ; secretary to the treasurer, xxix ; his Second Discourse, xxix, 105, its date, xxix, xxx, omissions in, xxx ; difference between his First and Second Discourses, xxxi-xxxiii; not the . first to denounce abuses in the navy, xxxiii ; his First Discourse, xxxv, 11,103 ; his charges against officials, xxxviii ; his exposure of abuses, xliii, xliv ; his character, Ivi, Ixiii, Ixiv, Ixvi, Ixvii; MSS. of the First Discourse, Ixviii; MSS. of the Second Discourse, Ixix ; a member of the committee of merchants, 122, 139 ; his animus against executive officers, 166 ; is threatened with ruin, 241-2, 262 ; bought the Spanish anchors, 290 ; maintains the independence of the commissioners of the navy, 295-6; is worried out of the navy, 296 ; the ‘ hand of God,3 297 ; his integrity as a commissioner, 312 ; his reply to the accusations against him, 392, 397, and passim Holt, William, 273 Hopkins, Edward, xxvi Horsman, Edward, commissioner of customs, 125 412 INDEX Hosier, Francis, muster-master at Gravesend, 231 Houses in the yards, 97 ; made fitter for knights, id.; the exorbitant expense of, in the State’s yards, 148-50; are built of chips, 151 IRON, forest or English, 229 ; old, is embezzled, 257, men in each yard appointed to collect, id., they do not deliver it, 258, sell it to the smiths, id., are in league with the smiths, id. Ironworks, petty, various sorts of, 231 ; give a great latitude of deceit, id.; a mystery in the rating of, 232, peculiar to the State’s service, ib., usage of private builders as to, 233 ; careless weighing and examination of, ib.; medium rate of pay for, suggested, 234 ; should not be forged in or near the State’s yards, 236, 251, which gives opportunity to steal, 237-41, by which smiths have made great estates, 240 JAMAICA fleet, undue cost of the, 148 James I., exceeding corruption during the reign of, liii, Ixviii Joiners’ Hall, proposal for estimates from, 35 Jones, Colonel, member of admiralty committee, xix KEYS to the great gate, £c., 97 King’s merchant, the. See Merchant. King’s tradesmen, the, warrants or commissions to, 281 ; were put an end to by the Parliament, ib. Kirke, Lewis, captain of the Repulse, 369-70, 379, 381, 384-5, 388 Kirke, Sir David, 357 Knacks = tricks, 157 LABOURERS, a needless number of, 16 Langham, Captain, 125 Leveson, Sir Richard, 329 Limbery, Captain John, victualling contractor, xxv, 158, 186, 297 Limbery, William, 186 Lindsey, Earl, 403 ‘ Louse in the pot,’ 134 MAINWARING, Sir Henry, 378, 381-2, 384-5 Mandeville, Lord, treasurer, 119 Mansell, Sir Robert, treasurer of the navy, li, 47, 329, 334, 398 Maplesden, George, purveyor of timber, 223 Martin, Sir Henry, 406 Masham, Sir William, a member of the committee of the navy, xx Mason, Captain, his travelling expenses, 47 Master attendants, the, their pay, 19 ; their deputies, ib. ; loss by their non-attendance, 20 ; duties of, 20; payment of their deputies, 48 ; abuse of, ib. ; the four, 89 Master shipwrights, the, pay their own servants at high rates, 28 ; press men unnecessarily, ib. ; absent from the yard, ib. ; ought to be mustered, 31 ; their absence leads to neglect and confusion, ib. ; working by a deputy, 31 ; lavish expenditure demanded by, 34 ; apt to be dishonest in rating of contracts, 38 ; prefer working by contract, 42, the reason, id., a gross abuse, 44 ; sell timber to the King, 79 ; the three, 89 ; have too much power in the rating of wages, 133 ; show undue partiality in rating, 134″; fraudulent sales by, 209 ; turn timber-merchants, 211, and obtain excessive rates, id. ; give false certificates, 219-20; are partners with the contractors, 220 ; ought not to carry on private trade, 317-18 INDEX Men, borne in the king’s ships, employed privately, 16, 17 ; appear but at pay day, 17 ; paid, in different capacities, three or four times over, 142, 172 ; poisoned by stench of putrid victuals, 157; forced to eat bad victuals, 166, 273 ; disgusted by the badness of the victuals, 179 ; can get no redress, 179 ; are wronged in the matter of their victuals, 180 Mennes, Sir John, Ixxv, Ixxviii, Ixxix, 379, 381, 384, 386 Merchant, the King’s, a most unnecessary and chargeable minister, 58 ; excessive payments to, 60; fraudulent practices of, 69; appointment of unfit persons as, 70 ; exaggerated charges of, ib., examples, 71, 280 Merchants, committee of, dispute with Hollond, xix ; appointment of, 120; regulated in the sole interest of the customs, 121 ; remove all the old officers of the customs, 122, 123 ; partiality of, 123 ; appointed for the government of the navy, 334 Mervin, Sir Henry, xiii, Ixxii, 372, 375-9, 38i-3, 3?5-8 Ministers, subordinate, their pay is insufficient, ioo; must live knaves or die beggars, 101 Monck, George (afterwards Duke of Albemarle), a member of the admiralty commission, 115, 133 Monson, Sir William, his Naval Tracts, xxxv, xlvii, andfreg. Morris, John, a commissioner of the navy, xviii, Ixii, Ixiii Mountagu, Edward, general at sea, 171 Mountagu, James, rear-admiral under the Earl of Warwick, 357 .Musters, false, xl-xlii ; necessity of exact, 142 ; unexpected, by persons not foreknown render corruption almost impossible, 339 ; of the yards to be taken by clerks of the principal officers, 345 ; the same clerk not to be employed twice together, ib. Myddelton, Thomas, surveyor, 50, 176 Mystery is generally attended with knavery, 256 NAILERS should not be permitted to live in or near the State’s yards, 237, evils arising from their doing so, 237-44 Nails have a limited weight to each thousand, 230, abuses in this, ib. ; should be both weighed and counted, 259-61 Nash, Thomas, 402 Navy, the, under the Parliament, xvii; its national importance, 5, 113 ; under Elizabeth, 5 ; under James I., ib. ; under Charles L, ib. ; its weight with foreign powers, 6 ; a wheel that sets all Christendom to work, ib. ; its government, 8 ; its state, 9 ; is become not unlike a great wood, n, 116; needs to be governed by deserving, knowing, and honest men, 55 ; want of money in, 71 ; is governed by the four principal officers, 81-2 ; government of, corrupted by the increase of shipping, 82; cannot now be regulated as formerly, ib. ; a clerk the proper person to govern, 89-93 ; prevented foreign invasion during the Civil War, 113, and during the first Dutch war, ib. ; little success in the regulation of, 115 ; its business referred to men who had no knowledge of it, ib.) and were guided by private interest, ib. ; Act for regulation of the officers of, 117; Act for regulating, 120, 122; regulated by tradition, 252 ; committee of, made contracts without consulting the commissioners, 266 ; the service of, to be brought to a stand for want of money, 301 ; taken to farm by the merchants, 335 ; commands in, given to masters of merchants’ ships, 335 Navy Office, the, books of, very 414 INDEX superficially kept, 337 ; number of clerks in, insufficient, 337 Morris, Captain Thomas, surveyor of the navy, 99 ; on the Grand Commission, 118 Northumberland, Earl of, lord admiral’s substitute, commands the fleet, xiii ; reports abuses, xiii, xxv, Ixxiii, App. passim • is dissatisfied with the result, xvi ; his letter to Strafford, xvi ; mentioned, Ixxii, 114, 289, 337 Nose of wax, 319 Nottingham, Earl of, lord admiral, 330, 333 OATHS, value of, 277 ; not administered to commissioners, ib.^ except the treasurer, ib. ; administered to pursers, 278, not to victuallers, ib. Officers, evils arising from their absence, 18; seamen, unfit to govern the navy, 90-1 ; none should deal for any provision, 212 Officers, the four principal, their authority, 10 ; are all immediate ministers for the King, 11 ; ignorant expenditure of, 35 ; wink at abuses, 37 ; employ an overseer, who ought to be a man of discretion and experience, 45 ; must keep the stores well furnished, 60 ; cannot act in London and at the out-ports at the same time, 83 ; pay of, 306, 327 ; a council to the lord high admiral, 328 ; suspended, 334 ; cannot perform their duties without sufficient clerical assistance, 341 ; to have separate rooms for their clerks, 344 ; to appoint their clerks to muster the yards, 345 Officers of ships, their pay is insufficient, 102 ; it is recognised that they must steal to live, ib. Order, want of, the stroy-good of the navy, 81-2 Ordnance of the navy, mastership of, and of the land service united, 331 ; proposal to separate the two again, ib. • the union has caused much inconvenience, 382 Ornament. See Ships Osborne, John, on the Grand Commission, 118 Overly = careless, 277 PAINTERS’ HALL, proposal for estimate from, 35 Palmer, Sir Henry, comptroller of the navy, xi, xii, xlv, 361, 363, 398,403 Parks, Edward, commissioner of customs, 125 Parsons, John, commissioner for victualling, 155 Pay, harbour, 13, 126 ; sea, 13, 20, 126; abuses, 21; of officers insufficient, 102, and leads to embezzlement, ib. ; arrears of, a great cause of confusion, 345 ; of seamen, 351 Payler, George, xxviii Payments should be distinctly set out in all books, 152 Penington, Sir John, vice-admiral of the fleet, xiii, Ixxiii-lxxv, Ixxvii, 163,289, 361, 364-5, 367-9,38i-3, 385-8 Penn, Sir W.,i33, 148, 180,338, 342, 344 Pett, Christopher, xxiii, xxiv Pett, Peter, master shipwright, xxiii, xxiv, 119 Pett, Peter, navy commissioner, xx, xxii, xxiii, 123, 164, 309- ro, 343 Pett, Phineas,xii, xxxix, 329, 336 Pett, Phineas, 225 Petts, the, family of, xi, xxiii ; influence of, xxiv, 239; double dealing of, 310 Phillips, John, 402 Pilotage, 12 ; rewards for, 51 ; paid without just cause, 52 ; should not be paid to officers of the ship, 52-3 Pine, Stephen, an ex-purser, 175 Pitt, William, on the Grand Commission, 118 Popham, Edward, general at sea, INDEX 415 133, 169, 170 ; shipwrecked, 41 ; threatened to hang the victualling contractor, 273 Popham, Sir Home, false charges against, Iviii Pork, offal put among, 178 Preice, Richard, victualling contractor, 158, 297 Press of unfit men, xxxvii, xxxviii, 50; of men from merchants’ ships, 21 ; abuse of, ib. ; grievances of, 22-3 ; not needed, 352 Prestmasters, undeserving and unable, 51 Prest-money, 21 Preston, Robert, a clerk, 239 Pride, Colonel Thomas, victualling contractor, 124, 158, 297 Prusen, Hildebrand, the King’s merchant, 59 Purefoy, Colonel, member of admiralty committee, xix Purloinings, 101 Pursers generally poor, 163 ; live well, ib. ; their tricks, ib. ; Pepys on, ib. ; pay of, ib. ; seamen’s wages should not be paid to, 130, 164; in subjection to contractors, 174-5 5 are damnified thereby, 175 ; share with the victualler, 180 ; their dispute with contractors, 181-4 Purveyance calls for experience, care, and circumspection, 56 Purveyors, duties and qualifications of, 56 ; commissioners are guided by, 57 ; have opportunities for embezzlement, 61 ; cannot act in different places, 62; should be seasonably called to account, ib. ; in league with hoymen, 65 ; pass worthless stores, 68 ; difficulty of checking, 77 ; ought not to carry on private trade, 317 Purveyors of timber, great trust reposed in, 206; their pay is continuous, 210; great loss caused by their ignorance or worse, 222 ; their accounts should be examined, 224; the provision by, should be inspected, ib. RADCLYFFE, Sir Edward, Ixxx Rainborow, William, xiii, 373-5, 377-9, 382, 384-5, 387 Ralegh, Sir Walter, 116 Regulators, committee of, 122-3. See also Merchants, committee of Religion a cloak for fraud, 227 ; a vizard to abuse the State, 297 Repairs, done on float very costly and allow many abuses, 145 ; should be done in dock whenever possible, ib. ; should be done betimes, 146 Retinue, abuse of, 26 Rewards, 12 ; for a service done, 53 ; as increase of salary, *£., examples, 53-4 ; unjust apportionment of, 55 Rhynband, a kind of hemp, 74 Richardson, Robert, 393 Rope, bought ready made, one of the greatest thefts in the navy, 75-6 Round robins, 156, 159 Russband, a kind of hemp, 74 Russell, Sir William, treasurer of the navy, x, xi, xii, xvi, xvii, xviii, 118, 329, 334, 361, 364, 366, 371, 375, 3^7, 3B9-90, 392, 396 t Ryder, Skinner, purveyor of timber, 223 SALESBURY, Hugh, 273 Salesbury, Mrs., used to cash tickets, 129 Saltoun, Lord Alexander, his complaint, 198 Sandwich. Earl of, 330. See also Mountagu, Edward Seamen, pay of, 351 Seek, I am to, = at a loss, 161 Servants, King’s, to have a preference, 24 ; are seamen bred by the service, 24; employment of, in merchants’ ships, ib. Servants, multiplicity of, an abuse, 15 ; their insufficiency, 16 Shafto, captain of a hired merchantship, Ixii, Ixiii Sharkings, 27, 54 Shaw, Sir John, 191 416 INDEX Sheldon, Mr., 55 Ships, costly ornament of, 33-4; a vain expense, ib. ; kept in sea pay for want of money, 138; many months in harbour, 147 ; improper entries in books of, 152 ; hazarded for private profit, 201 ; merchant, hired for the service of the State, 264; c old toads and leeward jades,3 267 ; fraud in the sale of, 319-20 ; cast, the due of the lord admiral, 333; merchant, were formerly of strength equal to the King’s, 354 ; building of, discouraged, 355 Ships : Adam and Eve, 320 Adventure, 362, 365, 370, 373, 374, 376, 377, 378, 381 Andrew, 273 ; St. Andrew, 362, 364, 365, 371, 373, 377, 378, 383, 385, 386, 392 Angel, Ixii, Ixiv, Ixv Anne Percy, Ixii, Ixiii Anne Royal, her loss, 52 Assurance, xx, 362, 365, 367, 370, 373-4, 376-8, 381, 384, 388 Blacn George, 365, 370, 373, 377, 400, 403 ^ Blessing, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixiv Bonadventure, 380, 393 Charles, 29, 362, 365, 370, 373, 377-8 Constant Reformation, 28, 377, 3 89 Convertive, Ixxiii, 379-80, 384, 386 Crescent, Ixvii Defiance, 374, 376, 378, 400 Destiny, 379 Dragon, Ixii Dreadnought, 362, 377, 400 Expedition, Ixxiii Garland, xxii, Ixxiv, Ixxv, 362 365, 370, 377-8 Gillyflower, 320 Grantham, 131 Happy Entrance, Ixxii, Ixxiv, Ixxv, 371, 377, 380-1, 384, 386, 392 Hector, 320, 357 Henrietta Maria, 29 Ships (cont.) : Honour, Ixiii Hope, 320 James, xlviii, 372, 374, 378, 380, 382-3 Leopard, 29 Lion, 400 Little Neptune, 357 Little President, 320 Loyalty, 186 Lucie, Ixvii Mary, 320 Mary Rose, 362, 365, 370, 374, 376, 378, 393, 397, 401 Mayflower, Ixii-lxiv Merhonour, 365, 378 Messenger, Ixv Nicodemus, 320 Nonsuch, 400 Paragon, 273 Phoenix, 273 Plover, 320 Primrose, 320 Prince, 33, 400 Prince Consort, 51 Prince Royal, 400 Providence, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixxiii Rainbow, 273 Red Lion, 400 Reformation, 185, 186 Repulse, 362, 369, 373, 376, 378, 381,384,400 Resolution, 273 Roebuck, Ixxii Royal Defence, Ixxiii Rupert, 363 St. Denis, 377, 400 St. George, 373, 377, 378 Samuel, Ixiv Satisfaction, 273 Seven Brothers, 157 Sovereign, 33 Sovereign of the Seas, 253, 355 Swallow, 29, 374, 378, 388 Swiftsure, Ixxiii Tiger, xxii Triumph, 362, 365, 373, 374, 377, 378, 384 Truelove, Ixv Tulip, 320 Unicorn, xii, 179, 381, 383, 384 Vanguard, xliii, 365, 388 INDEX Ships (cont.): Victory, 119, 362, 365, 373, 378 Westergate, 320 Whelps, the, 41, 362, 374, 378 First Whelp, Ixxiii Second Whelp, 362, 370, 378, 400 Third Whelp, Ixxii, Ixxiii Fourth Whelp, 370, 400 Fifth Whelp, 362, 368, 370, 378, 384, 386 Eighth Whelp, Ixxii Tenth Whelp, Ixxii, 362, 377-8 Wildman, 320 Wren, 320 Shipkeeper, the, generally the cabin-breaker, 19 Shipwrights’ Hall, proposal for estimates from, 35 Short, clerk of the check at Chatham, xi Sickness caused by bad victualling, 160 Slingsby. See also Slyngesbie and Slyngisbie Slingsby, Henry, Ixxi Slingsby, Mary, Ixxxi Slingsby, Sir Francis, Ixxi Slop-seller, a, should not be allowed to advance clothes to a seaman without authority from the captain, 131 Slyngesbie, Lady, Ixxx Slyngesbie, Sir Robert, his Discourse of the Navy, Ixviii, Ixix, Ixxxi, 327; comptroller of the navy, Ixx, Ixxi, Ixxix ; commands the Third Whelp, Ixxii; commands the Expedition, Ixxiii; commands the Happy Entrance, Ixxiv; commands the Garland, ib. j thrown into prison, Ixxvii ; joins the King at Oxford, ib. ; sent on a secret mission, Ixxviii; at the siege of Bristol, Ixxviii; spent 5,8oo/. in the royal service, Ixxix ; his estimate of, Ixxxi; MSS. of his Discourse of the Navy, Ixxxii Slyngesbie, Col. Walter, brother of Sir Robert, Ixxviii Slyngisbie, Sir Gylford, Ixxi, 118 Smith, John, a contractor, 236 Smith, Thomas, a navy commissioner, xx, Ixv, Ixvii Smiths’ forges, abuses connected with, 247-9 Smiths ought not to have free access to the yards, 245, which renders the watchmen useless, 246 Smyth, Sir Thomas, on the Grand Commission, 118 Sogging = soaking, 63 Sousa, Antonio de, Portuguese resident in London, Ixxiv Sovereignty of our kings in the Narrow Seas, 327 Spragge, Sir Edward, 171 Stewart, Sir Francis, vice-admiral under the Earl of Warwick, 357 Still, Thomas, merchant of London, 75 Stores, definition of, 13 ; should be of the best, 66-7 ; not in excessive quantity, 67, 70 ; depletion of, to be avoided, 73 ; the State’s should not lie in any private man’s keeping, 259 ; unservice-, able, the perquisite of subordinate officers, 333 Stradling, Captain, 380, 388 Stafford, Earl of, letter to, from Earl of Northumberland, xvi, Ixxv, 116 Sturt, Anth[ony], commissioner for victualling, 155 Surgeons, 2d. per mensem from each man to the, 348 Surveyor the, one of the four principal officers, 10, 82, 327 Sutton, Richard, on the Grand Commission, 118 Sweetenings, 315 Symons, Thomas, house carpenter at Chatham, 239 TAR, price of, 197 Taylor, Captain John, master shipwright at Chatham, 157 Taylor, Daniel, commissioner of customs, 124 Terne, Nathan, clerk of the chest, 396 E E 418 INDEX Thompson, Major Robert, a navy commissioner, xx, xxii, xxv, 122, 124 Thomson, William, 123 Thongs, large, 54, 101 Thorp, William, the surgeon, .384 . . – Tichborne, Robert, commissioner of customs, 124 Tickets, not signed when due, 128 ; cashed at a loss, 129 Timber, abuses in respect to, 1; purveyance of, 61-3 ; unserviceable or defective, prejudicial to the King’s service, 67 ; fit for nothing but to burn, 68 ; how provided, 77 ; great loss arising from the supply of bad, 78-9 ; received without warrant, 80; extraordinary waste of, 80; different kinds of, 206; present want of, in the yards, 207, damage that may arise from this want, 208 ; price of, is enhanced, z&, and bad purchased, 209; for special uses not to be had, 210 ; the State should buy, by the lump, 212 ; suitable, is scarce near London, 213 ; advantage of buying, in the tree, 214 ; much cheaper if bought in large quantities, 215; arguments against buying, in the lump considered, 216; special care should be given to the measuring of, 221 ; use of foreign, 225 ; foreign, is poorish and ‘ frow,; but free from knots, 226; from New England, 227 ; refuse of, sold to, the State, ib. ; destruction of, 229 Tradescant, John, 275 Treasurer, the, one of the four principal officers, 10, 82 ; checks on payment by, 162; of the navy, payments by, must be authorised by the navy board, 300; pay of, 306; should not pay suspicious warrants, 307, or at exorbitant rates, ib. ; should satisfy himself as to the justness of payment, 308, his doing so will be objected to, 309, 327 ; books of, to be examined, 346, and audited, ib. Trevor, Sir John, xlv, li Trinity House, proposal for estimates from, 35, 158 Tromp, Admiral, Ixxviii; defeats the Spaniards, 289 Tutnell, Robert, xx Tweedy. Roger, a commissioner of the navy, xviii, Ixii, Ixiii UPTON, John, commissioner of customs, 125 VANE, Sir Henry, the younger, joint treasurer of the navy, xvii, xviii; treasurer of admiralty committee, xix, xxvi Vane, Sir Henry, 273 Vassall, Samuel, a member of the committee of the navy, Ixii, Ixiii, Ixiv Venables, 133 Victuallers, payments by, in lieu of victuals, lead to abuse, 25 ; accounts to the principal officers, 66 ; are not sworn, 278 Victualling, the State should keep the, in their own hands, 154 ; not assign it to contractors, 155, which may be hazardous, ib. ; by contract disadvantageous to the State, 161 necessary in foreign parts, 165 ; special care should be taken in making contracts for, ib. Victualling office, great confusion in the accounts of, 350 Victuals, extension of the term, 12, 65, 147 ; sea, allowance of, for each seaman, 153 ; decayed and unwholesome, 157; poisonous, 160 ; petty warrant, to ships in harbour, 161 ; bad, 166 ; defective, ib. supplying of, by the generals, 169, is prejudicial to the service, 170, and below the dignity of a general, ib. large bones and offal among, 179; petty warrant, the delivery of, 181 ; men have been for two or INDEX 419 three days without victuals in consequence of the non-delivery of; 183 ; the contractor ought to deliver, 182 ; delivery not the purser’s business, 182 ; harbour, two sorts of, 183 ; which a dog would loathe, 273 WADE, Major John, 229 Wages, different sorts of, 12; points to be observed in, 13; rated, 13, 27 ; abuses as to, 14-17 ; to men working in the King’s yards, 27; rated by master shipwrights, z£., abuse arising from this, ib. ; excessive increase of, 29 ; paid by the lump, 32 ; rateable by the journey or service, 45 Wages, day, preferable to pre-contract, 36; advantages~of, 37 Wages, sea, 126 ; harbour, 126 ; upon prick and check, same as day wages, 126 ; abuses in, 127 ; injustice of detaining four or five months’, 128 ; paid to wrong parties, 129 ; of dead men ought to be paid to their heirs at once, 135 ; great loss to the State from not providing for the payment of, 137; augmentation of, in all ranks, 141 ; extraordinary, for overtime, 146; rigging, before ships go to sea, 161 ; pay-books are swelled beyond measure, 248, the foundation of all manner of waste, ib. ; izd. per mensem deducted from each man’s, 347 Wake, Baldwin, Ixxvii Warrants, petty, harbour victuals issued by, 161 ; on a single voucher, 162 ; to the amount of I5,ooo/., ib. ; with no effective check, 162-4 Warwick, Earl of, lord high admiral, xvii, 114, 139, 356, 357; appointment as lord high admiral cancelled, xix, Ixxv, Ixxvii Watchman, the, generally the thief, 18 Water, Lieutenant, Ixxvii Water, Margaret, Ixxi Water, Sir William, Ixxi Wauton, Colonel Valentine, member of admiralty committee, xix, xx Wells, John, storekeeper of the navy, 328 Wells, Mr., paymaster under Sir Robert Mansell, 394, 398 Weston, Sir Richard, on the Grand Commission, 118 White, Peter, 389 Whitton, Thomas, keeper of stores at Chatham, 239 Widows of men dead in the service should be favourably dealt with, 136-7 Willoughby, Colonel William, a navy commissioner, xx, 121-2 Willoughby, Francis, a commissioner of the navy, xxi, 124, 164 ; his report on pressed men, 50 Windebank, secretary, 403 Witherings, Thomas, victualling contractor, 158, 297 Wolstenholme, Sir John, on the Grand Commission, 118, 343 Workmen in the yards employed upon by-services, 151 Wynter, Sir William, 58 ; master of the ordnance, 331 ; his report as to merchant-ships, 354 YORK, Duke of, lord high admiral of England, xxix, xxx, 109, 114, 176, 337, 342
Joseph Tanner was born 28 July 1860 in Frome, Somerset, and educated at Mill Hill and St. John’s College, Cambridge, where he took a First in History in 1882. He was President of the Cambridge Union Society in Easter Term 1883. He was a Lecturer in History at St. John’s from 1883 to 1921, and lecturer on Indian History to the Indian Civil Service from 1885 to 1893. In 1883 he became a Fellow of St. John’s and was an Assistant Tutor from 1895 to 1900, a Tutor from 1900 to 1912, and Tutorial Bursar, 1900 – 1921. He was Deputy to the Regius Professor of Modern History, 1926-27. He gave the Lees Knowles Lectures on Pepys and the Royal Navy in 1919. He died 15 January 1931 in Aldeborough, Suffolk.
His publications include
• Holland’s Discourses of the Navy (Navy Records Society, 1896).
• A Descriptive Catalogue of the Naval Manuscripts in the Pepysian Library 4 volumes (Navy Records Society, 1903, 1904, 1909, 1922)
• Pepys’ Memoirs of the Royal Navy (1906).
• Samuel Pepys and the Royal Navy (1920).
• Tudor Constitutional Documents, 1485 – 1603 (1922).
• Mr. Pepys, An Introduction to the Diary (1926).
• Pepys Naval Minutes (Navy Records Society, 1926).
• Private Correspondence of Samuel Pepys, 1679 – 1703 (1926).
• English Constitutional Conflicts, 1603 – 1689 (1928).
• Further Correspondence of Samuel Pepys, 1662 – 1679 (1929).
• Constitutional Documents of the Reign of James I (1930).
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