This volume stands immediately before Laughton’s on the Spanish Armada. It prints the major English documents relating to Drake’s voyage to the West Indies in 1585-86, and his expedition to Cadiz in 1587. To these are added an important collection of papers describing English naval administration, and in particular John Hawkins’ part in it, the mobilization of the Queen’s ships, and an appendix on ‘Guns and Gunnery in the Tudor Navy’.
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ACHATES ACHATES, the, survey of, 230; armament of, 308 ; mentioned, 262, 272, 276, 313 Acuna, Don Pedro de, commands galleys on the Andalucian station, ioS?z., no, 112, n6j 117 Advice, the, 236, 284, 312 Ady, John, shipwright, 314 Ager, Mr., 55 Aid, the, ordnance supplied to, 31 ; survey of, 227 ; armament of, 306 ; mentioned, x, xi #., xii, 10,28, 51, 241, 248, 261,270*., 283, 3H Albufeira (Algaferra), landing at, xxxvi and n. Alcabala, a tax, 75 and n. Aldborough, a ship of, 275 Algarve, tunny fisheries of, destroyed, xxix, 131, 137, 142; their importance for provisioning the Spanish fleet, xxix, 131 n. Alien, a Jesuit, 83 Alien, Doctor, afterwards Cardinal, 83 Alleyn, Thomas, his charges against Hawkyns, 213 ;/., 216- 224, 216 >z., 244 #., and sec Hawkyns, John Alligators, 22 ; have been in London to be seen, ib. Almaynes, see German troops Almudos, Don Pedro de, governor of Bayona, 46, 48, 50 Amirailles (Fr.), vice-flagships, 120 Amity, the, 275 Anchors, weight of, 267 Andalucian Squadron, concentrated at Cadiz, xxvii; galleys on the station, see Acuna, Lagos, Santa Gadea ARMADO Andelot, Frangois Coligny Sieur d’, 80 and n. Anne Frances, the, 275 Antelope, the, survey of, 227 ; armament of, 305 ; mentioned, 241, 260, 271, 276, 284 ;/. Antichrist, 102 Antonio, Don, Prior of Crato, Pretender to the throne of Portugal: reported to be with Drake, 52 ; but at the time in England, ib. n. ; Spanish fear of his landing, 69 ; mentioned, viii, xvi, 35 #., 95 n. See Strozzi Archduke, the Cardinal, Viceroy of Portugal, xliv Argosy, derivation of the word, 65 n. Ark, the, purchased from Ralegh, 257 and TZ., 283 n. ; survey of, 228 ; mentioned, 270 n. Armada, the Great, preparations for, 52, 56, 60, 64, 68, 108, 109, in, 112, 126, 139, 192, 193, 196, 199; Burghley’s remonstrance against, 49 ; a French contingent to join, 68 ; counter preparations in England, 55, 109; concentration of, to be prevented, 106, 127 ; Santa Cruz reports on, xxvii n. ; mobilisation of, hopelessly confused by Drake’s operations, xxxvi-xxxix; project abandoned in 1587, xliv. See Drake, Sir Francis; St. Vincent, Cape Armada campaign of 1588, account of, inspired by Drake, see Ubaldino Armado (Armatho) = a great shipr 60, 65, 67 ; the word wrongly used for Armada, 60 #., 75 344 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 ARMAMENT Armament, secondary, 331, 334 Armistice suggested in the Netherlands, 147 Arragon, Philip in, 51, 58; Parliament of, will not swear allegiance to his son, 59 ; will not accept the Inquisition, ib. Arrecifa (Reff), 6 Ascension, the, of London, her tonnage, 264 ; mentioned, 275 Aspichi (aspicks), 320, 324 Atkenson, Clenton, 63 Ayamonte, xxxix, 69 Azores, the, rendezvous of the Indies floras, 3 n. ; rich prize captured at, see San Felipe; Strozzi’s expedition to, in 1583, 35 and n. BAAL, upholders of, 133 Babington plot, the, 123 n. Bacon, John, witness against Borough, 163, 164 Baeshe, Edward, Surveyor of the victuals, 212 ; report by, 282; deceased, 238 n. Baif, Lazare, quoted, 338 Baily, Captain, commands the bark Talbot, xii Baird, his ‘ Huguenots and Henry of Navarre’ quoted, 53 #., 80 n. Baker, Christopher, keeper of the storehouses, 298 ; mentioned, 96, 208, 221, 249, 292 Baker, Matthew, shipwright: Hawkyns said to be in partnership with, 208, 222 ; reports on ships, 224; denies intention to worry Hawkyns, 231 ; a letter to, from Wynter, in Hawkyns’s favour, 251, 252 ; ships building by, 312, 314 ; natural hostility to Hawkyns, 220 n. Baltic stores, 215, 216 «., 222, 255, 265 Baltic, the, Borough’s victory in, see Borough Bank, the, of Seville, broke, 77 Bank, the, of Venice, very likely broke, 77 Barbary, Hawkyns reported to have sold stores for, 214, 257 BINGHAM Barbastro, in Arragon, 59 Bark, a term loosely used, 98 n., and App. B Barker, John, of Bristol, 293 Barton, George, xiii Base, a B.L. gun, 90 n., 332 Basilisk, a gun, 319, 324 Basquins = Biscayans, 65 Bastard class of ordnance, 316 Bastard muskets, 33 n. Bayninge, Paul, a prominent Levant merchant, 105 /*., 206 Bayona, Drake off, 2 ; negotiations for release of English prisoners there, 3,5; his reasons for putting in at, 41 ; uncertain whether sacked or not, 52 ; news from, disturbs the Spanish Council, 59 ; isles of (Cies Islands), 40, 59 Bazan, Alvaro de, see Santa Cruz Bazan, Don Alonso de, brother of Santa Cruz, said to have made an attack with galleys at Cascaes, xxxi n. Beeston, George, afterwards Sir George, 292 ; service, 295, 296 Belem, xxxi Bellenger, a trumpeter on the Golden Lion, 167 Bellingham, Captain Henry, commands the Rainbow in 1587, xix; a squadron in 1588, ib. Drake’s appreciation of, 103; whether vice-admiral of Borough’s squadron, 160 n., i88;/.; Borough appeals to, 171, 181 ; service, 298; mentioned, 188, 191, 292 Bellingham, Thomas, 292 Benjamin, bark, xi, xii Berkley, Sir Henry, 291, 295 Biggs, Walter, captain-lieutenant of Carleill’s company, xiii; his narrative of the Indies expedition, see * Summary Discourse’ Bilbao, escape of the Primrose from, ix Billingsley, Henry, on the Carrack Prize Commission, 200 Bingham, Sir Richard, 291; service, 295 INDEX 345 BISCAY Biscay, the Governor of, failure of his stratagem at Bilbao, ix; carried to England, ib. ; squadron of, under Recalde, escapes Drake, xxix ; letters from, 77 Bitfield, Captain, commands the Swallow, xii Black money, 17 Blackbills, 30 and n., 33 Blackecoller, alias Cro we, Nicholas, steers the Golden Lion at a critical moment, 165 Bland, J. S., 57 Bodenham, Jonas, 249 Bonaventure, the, see Elizabeth Bonaventure Bonavolia, the, formerly galley Eleanor : the only galley in the English service, 283 n. ; import of the name, ib. ; report on, 230 ; mentioned, 276, 284, 313 Bond, Alderman, letters to, 78 Bond, bark, xii, 236 Bonner, bark, xi, xii, 236 Boratos, a stuff, 203 n. Bordeaux, advertisements through, 77 ; embargo at, ib. Boreman, Simon, merchant, 105 Borough, Stephen, 296 Borough, William, Clerk of the Ships, his great authority on naval affairs, xviii, 124 n., 296; his service, 296; victory at Narva in 1570, ib. ; Wynter appeals to, against Hawkyns, 209; perhaps Hawkyns’s viceadmiral in 1586, 252 n. ; complaint against Hawkyns, referred to, 252; now thoroughly reconciled with him, ib. Drake’s vice-admiral in 1587 : ‘ very discreet, honest, and most sufficient/103; his protest against seizure of Cape St. Vincent, 123- 30; apology for, 130; deprived of his command and placed under arrest, 143 ; carried home in the Golden Lion, xl, 155, 156 ; sentenced to death by Drake, xl; writes to Howard from Dover, 142 ; demands an inquiry, 143. Charges against, relative to his BURGHLEY conduct at Cadiz, of personal cowardice, of deserting and compromising the fleet, of seducing officers, 153-55) 157-645 generally, unduly cautious advice in council, 163; replies thereto, 153-55, 168- 85- Charges relative to the mutiny of the Golden Lion, and his re* plies, I49-5 1 ? 1 SS His relations with Drake generally reviewed, xlv-xlix, 125 n. Bostocke, John, commands the Makeshift, xx and «., 188 Boston, cordage of, substituted for Danzic, 215, 222, 255 Boteler, his * Sea Dialogues ‘ cited, 127 n., 226 n. y 258 n. Boulter, a stuff, 203 Bourne, William, his * Art of Shooting in Great Ordnance,’ App. A, passim Boyte, Phillip, 63 Brabbles = petty quarrels, 209 Eraser, debt to, 96 Brave, the, 275 Brazil wood, 251 Breech-loading guns, danger in firing, 333 ; and see App. A Breton ships, 66; as distinct from French, 141 Bribery, a factor in conducting public business, 145 n. Brigantine, 284 and #., 340 Brill, to be supplied with ordnance, $4 Bristol, the name, 165 n. ; ships of, 2 ; captains of, 293 Bristowe, Captain, 292 Brook, Fulke Greville, Lord, 292, 296 Browne, Henry, evidence of, 160, 163, 164 Bucke, Thomas, 293 ; service, 299 Buckland Abbey, Drake’s seat, Don Antonio at, 52 n. Buena Vista, 8 Bull, the, survey of, 278; mentioned, 271, 276, 283, 313 Bulls of pardon, 40 Burghley, Lord, President of the Council, notes of agenda for the 346 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 BURGHLEY Council by, 53, 197 ; official apology by, for Drake’s campaign, to De Looe, 148 ; despatch from Drake, 83 ; report of Audit Commission to, 86 ; letter from Cordell, 145 ;/. Burgundy, House of, see England, Philip II. Burre, bark, 83 CABLES, sizes of, 266 Cadiz campaign (1587), xvii-xlix ; importance of, xliii ; perfect strategy shown in, /&, xxv; epoch making, xlix ; papers relating to, 97-206 ; other narratives of, xxiv. See St. Vincent, Cape Cadiz, operations at, 107-23; of only secondary importance in the conduct of the campaign, xxv, xxviii, 117 n. ; French account of, 116 ; Spanish losses at, official report of, 120; intelligence gained at, 109, iu,xxvxxvii Cales (Gaels) = Cadiz, 107 n. ; 168 n. Calibre of guns, see App. A Canary Islands, Drake at, 6 ; mentioned, 49 «., 119 Cape Verde Islands, Drake at, 8- 12 ; price of wheat there, 65 ; report from, ib. Capitan Pasha, the, Drake’s presents to, 95 n. Cappitaines = flagships, 120 Captain Lieutenant, xiii Captains, list of, 291-3 ; notes on, 293-9 Careless, Edward, also called Wright, the ‘excellent mathematician and engineer,’ commands the Hope, xi, xii Carew, Sir George, Lieutenant of the Ordnance in 1594, letter to Sir Robert Cecil quoted, 317, 327 Carey; Sir George, Governor of the Isle of Wight in 1585, despatch from, to Walsyngham, 33 Carisbrooke Castle, 36 CHAGRES Carleill, Christopher, Drake’s Lieutenant-General commanding land forces, xi, and the Tiger, ib. and n. ; part taken by, at Cartagena, 19 ; at Vigo, 45 ; despatch from, to Walsyngham, 39 ; statement signed by, 92 ; his service, 298 Carrack Commission, see San Felipe Cartagena, capital of Tierra Firme, great centre of Spanish trade, xiv; capture of, 18-22 ; booty taken at, 21 ; description of, ib. ; sickness at, ib. ; ransom of, less than demanded, 89 ;/. ; selfdenying resolution in regard to, by the council of war, ib. ; Drake’s reasons for evacuating, ib.) and xiv ; mentioned, 66, 71 Cartagena, in Old Spain, ships at, xxvii; orders to, xxviii Carwell, Jeffrey, 160 Carye, Edward, one of the Carrack Prize Commission, 201, 206 Casa de Contracion, the, at Seville. 73 n. Cascaes Bay, description of, xxx; operations in, xxxi, 139, 143 ; inactivity of Santa Cruz at, ib. ; landing threatened at, xxxi n. ; why not attempted, xxxiii Casimir, Duke John, brother of the Elector Palatine, 53 Cassava, 13, 16 Castile, muster in, 192 Castle of Comfort, the, 297 Cataneo, work on ordnance by (1564), 332 Gates, Thomas, of Carleill’s company, see l Summary Discourse ‘ Catholics will yield up England without bloodshed, 193 Cavendish, Thomas, 292 ; service, 297 Cecil, Sir Robert, 317 Cecil, William, xiii Cely, Thomas, commands the Minion, xii Censure = condemnation of ships, 36 n. Centurion, the, 275 Chagres River, 72 INDEX 347 CHAIN Chain-walls, 166 Chamber, the, of Lisbon, Portuguese troops granted by, 52 Chambers, in B.-L. guns, 29 ;z., 332 Chapman, Richard, shipwright, 214, 257,312,314 Charge outward = cost of mobilisation, 86 ;/. Charity, the, 275 Charles, the, 284 Charles V. of Spain, tax continued by, 75 n. Charles VIII. of France, galleons of, 338 Chester, John, 292 ; service, 299 Cies Islets, see Bayona Cimaroons, see Maroons Cletherell or Cletherowe, a rope merchant in London, 222, 249 Clevar, Nicholas, a letter from, 80 Clifford, Alexander, commands the Spy pinnace, xx, 157 n., 188 Coat money, 273 Cobham, John, 292 ; service, 296 Cokayne, William, Danzic merchant in London, 222, 250 ; a ship of, 275 Colonies, Spanish, position of, with regard to commerce with England, vii Conduct = travelling money, 272 n. Coniars, a banished priest, 83 Constable, Sir Richard (Robert ?), 291, 295 Control = check accounts, 88 n. Copland, Thomas, evidence against Borough, 160-4, J 72? 1 79 Coppye, Abdye, 166 Cordell, Thomas, Levant merchant, agreement with Drake, 105 ; letter to Burghley, 145 n. ; signs inventory of the Carrack prize, 206 Corfe Castle to be strengthened, 55 Corn, dearth of, in Spain, 42 ; in France, 80 Corn ships, treacherous embargo laid on, ix, 43, 44 Coronelli, his ‘Atlante Veneto,3 339 Corporal of the Field (aide-decamp), xii, xiii, 43 n. CULVERINS Corporal, rank of, introduced into the navy, 24 n. Corriente silver, 90 Corrientes, Cape, 80 Corsairs, the, 23 n. Coruna (the Groyne), preparations at, 194, 197; not attacked in 1587, but in 1589, xxxiii n. Cottell, Drake’s clerk, effect of his death on Drake’s accounts, 89 Council of Spain, the, troubled by news of Drake, 59 Council, the Privy, agenda for, in Burghle/s hand, 53, 197 ; Melsam’s petition to, 61 ; countermands Drake’s orders, xxii, 100 ; some members of, reported to have betrayed State secrets, 123 ; falsely, ib. n. Councils of war, their traditionary authority, xlvi ; even in the seventeenth century, 124 n. ; Drake’s method with, 123. See Drake Courts martial, not yet an institution, xlviii ; precedent for, in Doughty’s case, ib. limit of their authority hitherto, ib. Courts of guard, 16 and n.^ 117 Crato, see Antonio, Don Credit, Spanish, dependent on the arrival of treasure fleets, xxviii ; effect on, of Drake’s proceedings in the West Indies, 77 Cripps, Biggs5 lieutenant, see 1 Summary Discourse’ Crofts, Sir James, Controller of the Household, a pensioner of Philip, 146; his service, 294 Crosse, Robert, afterwards Sir Robert, commands the bark Bond, xii, 47 n. ; sent as hostage to Bayona, 4; reports thence, 48; a captain in Platt’s land force in 1587, 187; sent home with despatches from Cadiz, 131 n”> r 33 n-> J 42 ? evidence against Borough, 158, 159, 172; subsequent services, 47 n. Cuba, Drake off, 23, 73 Culverins perier, 309 n. Culverins, App. A 348 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 CULVERTAILING Culvertailing = dovetailing, 244 n. Cumberland, Earl of, at Gravelines, 141 n. Curties, intelligence by, 68 Customs, Philip can do nothing without, 75 Cygnet, the, pinnace, Howard’s, xviii, xix; in Navy list, xix «., 284 Cyprus, a stuff, 203, 204 Cyprus, Don John of Austria at, 295 DAGON’S image, 133 Dantpllot, see Andelot Danzic, merchants of, 192, 196 Darnis, perhaps Tanlay, q.v. Darohan, see Rohan Dartmouth, reports from, 52, 65 ; fleet at, 97; provisions to be ready at, 235 Dassell, charges to, 96 Dawx, William, merchant of London, intelligence by, 66 ; petition of, id. Dead shares, 215, 256, 288, and see Pay Defalked = deducted, abated, 91 n. Delft, intelligence through, 56, 57 Demi-cannons, App. A Demi-culverins, App. A Demi-lances = light-armed lancers, 19 n. Denmark, the King of, to be warned, Deptford, only Queen’s ships should lie at, 223 Devil, the, natives of Florida speak with, 26 Dice shot, 30 and n. Dieppe, intelligence from, 68 Digbye, Ambrose, 293 Dissolved = released, 101 and n. Dominica, Drake at, 12; inhabitants of, are as red as scarlet, id. ; are cannibals, 13 Double cannon, App. A Doughty, Thomas, his trial and execution, xlv, xlviii; referred to by Borough, 151 Dover, the Golden Lion at, 145 DRAKE Downe, Matthew, a Flemish merchant, intelligence by, 57 Dragon, Drake plays the, 51 Drake, Bernard, of Ashe, head of the Drake family, 297; Newfoundland fisheries destroyed by, z’&.j xxix y knighted, 297; death of, ib. Drake, another, of the same family, 293, 299 Drake, Sir Francis, mentioned passim ; Jesuit plot against, 83 ; crest granted to, on knighthood, 102 n. ; his hatred of Spain, xlviii; fervent piety, 84, 104,109, 112, 134; tact, xxxix; humour, 133 ; liberality, 93,98 ; advanced views of strategy, no n. ; mistrusted as unscientific, xlv ; lack of respect for tradition, xlv, xlvi; method with councils of war, xlvi, 124, and n. ; personal devotion to Walsyngham, 104 n. ; study of military text-books, 134 n. ; his behaviour at San Juan de Ulua (1568) impugned, 152 and n. ; ‘ worketh by a familiar,’ 195 ; conduct of the Armada campaign (1588), see Ubaldino 1585. Indies campaign (0vz/.): sails from Plymouth, i; detail of his sea and land forces, xii; his orders, xiii; plan of campaign, zd.y 69; operations on the Spanish and Portuguese coasts, 2-5, 40- 51;* plays the dragon’ there, 51; at the Madeiras, 5 ; Canaries, 6 ; Cape Verde Islands, 8-12; Lesser Antilles, 12-14 > Espanola, 14- 18 ; Tierra Firme, 12-22 ; Cuba, 23 ; Florida, 24-26; Virginia, 26; misses the Indies fleets by twelve hours’ sail, 84 and n. ; ‘ a very great gap opened’ by, 84 ; despatch to Burghley, 83 1586. Negotiations with the Dutch, xvi; perhaps with the Porte, ib. and 95 n. 1587. Cadiz campaign (q.v. : his sea force, xx, 99, 120; his own squadron, xx; land force, xxiv j his orders, xxi, 106 ; con- INDEX 349 DRAKE tradictory orders to, xxii, 107 ; text of, 99-102 • suspects their despatch and eludes them, xviii; desertions from, at Plymouth, 103 ; suspects treachery in connection with, but without foundation, ib. and n. ; at Cadiz, 107- 123; Lagos, xxxv, 142 ; establishes himself at Cape St. Vincent, xxix, 136, 142 ; at Cascaes, xxx, xxxi, 138; sails for the Azores, xxxix; deserted by the Golden Lion, xl ; consequently unable to complete his work on the Spanish coast, ib. ; captures the San Felipe, xli ; returns home, xlii. See also Armada, the ; Borough, William ; Golden Lion, the ; San Felipe, the ; St. Vincent, Cape. Despatches to Walsyngham, 102, 107, 131, 140; to Wolley, 109 ; letter to Foxe, in Drake, Hugh, 293, 299 Drake, Lady, 157 n. Drake, Thomas, youngest brother of Sir Francis, commands the Thomas Drake, xi, 299 Drake, a gun, 328 Drake, the, a French bark taken and renamed, 40 and ;/., 99 and;/. Drake, the Elizabeth, 100 n. Drake, the Thomas, xii, 100 n. Drapers’ Company, xix n. Dreadnought, the, Queen’s ship, survey of, 226 ; complement of, 271 ; armament of, 305 ; springs a leak, 107 ; mentioned, xviii, xix n., xx, 98, 99, 236, 276 D re wet, John, 167, 184 Du Pare (1495), quoted, 338 Ducat, Durat, or Duraten hemp, 249 and 7?., 250 Ducat, value of, 4 n. Duck, the, galleot, not a galley, 5 and ;z., xi, xii, 45 n. Ducket, Sir Lionel, letter to, 216 n. Dufield, Captain, 293 Dump, 165 and n. Dutch, the, their commerce to be encouraged, 54 ; to furnish shipEMBARGO ping, 55, 198 ; negotiations with Drake, see Drake, Sir Francis EAST INDIA COMPANY, origin of, xlii, n. East India trade, secrets of, disclosed to the English, xlii Easterlings = Hanse traders, 192 »., 101, 107 Edmund, Thomas, 40 Edward Bonaventure, the, London ship, xx, 275 ; in the * worthy fight’ at Gibraltar, 161 n. Edward VI., classification of ships under, 339 Edwards, his < Life of Ralegh,’ xvi n. Eleanor galley, the, see Bonavolia Elector Palatine, the, 53 Elizabeth Bonaventure, the, Drake’s flagship in 1585, x; in 1587, xviii; near foundering,xl; service in 1588, 14 [ n. ; ordnance supplied to, 27 ; valued, 94 ; survey of, 226 ; complement of, 236 ; armament of, 304 Elizabeth Jonas, the, survey of, 224; tonnage of, 264 ; complement of, 270 ; armament of, 300 Elizabeth, the, or Elizabeth Drake, Drake’s ship, xx, 100 Elizabeth, Queen, her vacillation, ix, xxii ; disavows Drake’s action, xv ; distrusted by the Dutch, xvi ; reported to have taken the Low Countries under her protection, 56 ; whether afraid of the Spanish forces, 59 ; her share of the proceeds of the Indies voyage, 87, 94 ; ‘ drawn overboard’ by Hawkyns, 208 and n. ; mentioned passim Elize, Philip, Wyntefs clerk, 250, 251 Ellers, Hans, Hamburg merchant, 57 Embargo treacherously laid on English corn ships, ix, 34 ; retaliatory, in England, ix ; general on all foreign ships in Spain, 68 ; and Advertisements, frequently 350 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 EMPEROR Emperor, the, his son to be married to Donna Isabella of Spain, 61 Emperor * that married the King of Spain’s sister,’ whether the Grand Duke of Tuscany, 61 n. Enable = enhance, 254 n. England, ancient commercial treaties of, with the House of Burgundy, vii ; has ‘ too many teeth,’ 59 ; shall smoke ere long, 68 ; the disturber of Christendom, 194 England, enterprise of, see Armada Erizo, James, commands the White Lion, xii; sent as hostage to Bayona, 47 ; his report from thence, 48 Escorchapin, a ship, 121 n. Espanola (Hispaniola), Drake at, 14,71, 79 Espirito Santo, Fenton at, in 1582, 247 n. Essex, Earl of, organising an expedition with Drake, 186 n. Every, Alexander, 206 Exeter, some freemen of, their claims against Melsam, 64 FACT = delict, 63 Falconets, App. A Falcons, App. A Fashion pieces, 226 n. Fenelon, de la Motte, French ambassador in 1569, 28 n. Fenner, Edward, xxiv, 187, 298 Fenner, George, 292 ; his service, 297 ; action off the Azores •(1567), ib. Fenner, the galleon, 298 Fenner, Thomas, Drake’s flagcaptain in 1585, x ; commands the Dreadnought in 1587, xviii, 103 ; possibly appointed viceadmiral on Borough’s dismissal, 188 and n. ; his previous service, 298 ; his contempt for galleys, 11372., 115, 140; his impatience of Borough’s advice, 143 ; despatches from, to Walsyngham, 97, 134 : see 113 n. Fenner, William, 292, 298, 299 FRANCIS Fenton, Edward, his service, 298 ; mentioned, x, xlviii, 242, 292 Ferro (Hierro), landing at, 6, 70 Filches, Hawkyns’s, 219 Fireworks, the English specially skilled in, 335 Fishborne, Richard, evidence against Borough, 159, 163, 164 ; has a ship that has fought with six galleys, 161 Fisheries, see Algarve, Newfoundland, Whaling fleet Flag of truce violated, 17 Flamy, Adam and Daniel, intelligence by, 57 Flanders, Philip having taken, may easily win England, 59 ; ships of, have escaped from Lisbon, 51 ; sailors of, pressed, 194 Flick, Robert, commodore of the London squadron, xix ;z., 105 n. ; agreement with Drake, 105 ; evidence against Borough, 159, 163 ; directly contradicted, 175 Flood, a valiant and skilful (but reformed) pirate, 35 Florence, galleon of, at Lisbon, xxvii ;/., 193, 197 Florence, Grand Duke of, see Tuscany Flotas (convoys), xliv, 60 ;z., 73 ;/. Flower, John, xxiv, iSS Flushing, ordnance to be sent to, 54 Flying dragon, a gun, 324 Forelocks, 30 n. Foresight, the, survey of, 229 ; complement of, 271 ; armament of, 306 ; mentioned, 234, 260, 276,283,313 Fortescue, George, xi, xii Fowlers, mounting of, 29 n. See App. A Foxcrofte, Samuel, evidence against Borough, 157, 171 Foxe, John, the martyrologist, letter of Drake to, ill Foysts, 81 ;/. France will join Spain in the projected invasion, 63, and see Guise Francis, the (Francis Drake), xi, xii, 95 INDEX FREDERICK Frederick, Hans, Danztc merchant, intelligence by, 192 French bottoms, Spanish goods in, 3, MI French, the, sack San Domingo, ii ; defeated at Terceira, see Strozzi ; ship taken there, 58 ; ships, embargo on, at San Lucar, 68; ship destroyed at Cadiz, 122 ; ship taken by Drake, see Drake, the Frigates, Si n. Frobiser, Martin, Drake’s viceadmiral, x; statement signed by, 92 ; -mentioned, xii, xiv, 4, 24, 47, 48, 94, 292, 297 Froude, J. A., on Drake’s reason for leaving Lisbon, xxxiii n. GALE = a good sailing breeze, 6 n. Galicia, a barren and poor country, So Galleasses, see App. B Galleon, the, of Florence, see Florence Galleon, the, of Malacca, ready to sail, 53 Galleons, see App. B Galleys, discarded in the English service, though the term continues to be used, 5 «., 337 (but see Bonavolia) ; English contempt for, as a factor in tactics, 108, no, 112, 115, 140, 161 ; great opportunity for, at Cadiz, 115 ; at Cascaes, xxxi, 139 Garway, William, 206 Genoa, a ship of, sunk at Cadiz, 117 ; merchants of, their losses, 121 George Bonaventure, the, London ship, xx, 5, 99, 160, 179, 275 George, the, hoy, survey of, 230; mentioned, 241, 283, 313 German troops, coming to Lisbon, 52 ; in France, for the King of Navarre, 53 #., 80 Gibraltar, ships at, xxvii n. ; action off, in 1586, 161 n. ; in 1590, xix Gifford, Dr. Gilbert, letter to, 121, 123*. Gilberte, Sir Humphry, 294 Gilberte, Sir John, 201 Gilman, Edward, commands the Scout, xii Goche, report by, xxxvii n. Godolphin, Sir Francis, 201 Golden Hind, the, 162 n. Golden Lion, the, Drake’s viceadmiral in, 1587, xviii; mutiny and desertion of, xl ; depositions of crew of, 164-7, and sec Borough, William; Marchant, John ; survey of, 228 ; complement of, 271 ; armament of, 303 Golden Noble, the, 275 Gonson, Benjamin, 292, 297 Gonson, Benjamin, senior, 297 Gonson, William, 297 Gorges, Edward, 293 Gorges, Nicholas, 55, 292 ; service, 296 Gorges, Sir Edmund, 296 Gorges, Thomas, 201, 206 Goring, John, xiii Grand Guy, the, taken by Drake, 81 Graunte, Richard, intelligence by,65 Gravelines, battle of, in 1588,141 n. Greek fire, 335 Greeks, as pilots, 15 and n. Greine, Ingram, conspires against Drake, 83 Greville, see Brook Grey, John, 293 Grey, Lord, 295 Greyhound, the, 284 Greynvile, Sir Richard, 291; service, 296 Griffin, the, 236 Groyne, the, see Coruna Grytre, de, sec Guitry Guard, courts of, see Courts of Guard Guglielmotti, his ‘ Marina Pontificia,’ 81 #., 338 Guinea, Island = Santiago, q.v. Guinea nuts = cocoa nuts, 9 Guipuscoa, squadron of, xxvi Guise, the Duke of, fear of hostile action by, xvii ; leagued with France and Spain against the King of Navarre, 54 ; to extirpate Protestantism, 61; to com- 35 2 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 GUISE mand an army against England, <>3 Guitry, the Sieur de, agent of the King of Navarre, 53 and n. Gunner, the, see Norton Gunners, English, the best in Europe, 336 Gunners to be registered, that none depart the realm, 5 5 Gunnery, 330 and App. A Guns, see Ordnance Gurley, Thomas, 61 HALL, HUBERT, his l Society in the Elizabethan Age,’ quoted, xviiiw. Hall of a gun, 29 n. Hamon, Doctor, 164 Hampton, John, master of the Rainbow, 162 Hampton (Southampton), ship of, 2 Hampton, Thomas, 293 Handmaid, the, 222 72., 262, 313 Hanega (haneck, hanegg), a measure, 58 and 72., 62, 65 Hanken, Roger, 63 Hanken, Thomas, 63 Hankin, John, 293 Hannam, John, xiii Hannibal referred to, 134 Hanse merchants, see Easterlings Hanson, William, quarter-gunner of the Golden Lion, 165 Hargate, an intercepted letter to, 51 Harges, John, standard bearer, xxiv, 187 Harper, William, evidence against Borough, 162. 163, 164 Harquebus-k-crock, 320 Harris, John, evidence of, 157, 159, 160, 163, 164 Hart, the, galleasse, 311 and n. Harte, John, Alderman, a director of the Muscovy Company, 87 n. ; accounts audited by, 87-92 Hassall, intelligence by, 68 Hatton, Sir Christopher, Hawkyns attacked in mistake for, 246 n. Havana reconnoitred, 23 n. ; the rendezvous of the flotas, 73 ; Drake means to take, ib. ; he cruises off, 84 HENRY Havre, see Newhaven Hawkyns, bark, with Drake in 1585, though not mentioned in ‘ Summary Discourse,’ x n., 45 n. ; in Bayona road, 45 (but see Hope); with Drake in 1587, xx, 100 ; another of the name in 1588,4572. Hawkyns, John, afterwards Sir John ; his disaster at San Juan de Ulua(i568), 152 and 72., 253 72., 295 ; consequent pretended intrigues with Spain, 253 and n. ; his cruise in 1586, 252 72. ; stabbed in mistake for Hatton, 246 and n. His administration, as Treasurer of the Navy, xlix, i; papers relating to, 206-314 ; his contract (1579) to maintain the fleet in good order, 211 and n. ; proposes to close it (1587), 235 ; attacks on : by Wynter, 206 ; by Alleyn, 213 (?), 216 ; their value as evidence, xlix, 223 n. ; his own account on them, 234 ; 1 this mermaid’ will draw Burghley overboard, 208 ; his honesty, 1; independence, 208. See Alleyn, Baker, Pett, Wynter Letters : to the Council, 185 ; to Burghley, 233, 269 Hawkyns, John, a base son of, sent to stop Drake in 1587, fails to catch him, xxiii, 148 ; but captures a prize, xxiv, 199; worth 5,ooo/., 102 72., 145, 251 Hawkyns, Richard, afterwards Sir Richard, son of John, commands the Duck galleot, xi, xii, 5 «., 45 n. ; mentioned, 95 Hawkyns, William, brother of John, 292,298 ; mentioned, 247 n. Hawkyns, William, son of the above, 293, 299 Henry VIII., his orders in regard to councils of war, xlvi ; establishes the Admiralty Office on Tower Hill, 241 ; introduces the galleon type into the English service, 337 ; his smaller galle- INDEX 353 HENRY asses to be fitted with oars, 339 ; his action at Spithead, id. Hierro, seeFerro Hispaniola, see Espanola Holland, see Dutch, States of Holland Holstok, William, Controller of the Navy, 292, 295; certificate signed by, in Hawkyns’s favour, 240; relations with Hawkyns, 245 ; mentioned, 284 n. Honduras, Drake to cruise off, 73 Honnyngborn, Peter, deputy-clerk of her Majesty’s stores, 221, 249 Hope, the Queen’s ship, survey of, 229 ; complement of, 270 armament of, 302; whether identical with the bark Hawkyns, 45 ;/. ; mentioned, xi, 43, 96, 208,236,259,276,313 Hopkins, John, of Bristol, 293 Hoskyn, Daniel, intelligence in a letter to, 56 How, Roger, a letter to, in Howard’s possession, 82 Howard, Lord Thomas, 291, 294 ; at the Azores in 1591, xix n. Howard of Effingham, Charles, Lord, lord high admiral, 291, 293; instructions to Drake in 1587, xxiv, 128; relations with him in 1588, 126 n. ; ships of, xviii, xx, 99 • reconciles Hawkyns and Wynter, 251 ; approves of the purchase of the Ark, 257 //. ; mentioned, 82 Huguenots, the, see Baird, Navarre, Rochelle Humfrye, James, 246 Humphrey, Robert, MS. by, 272 n. Hunsdon, Henry Carey, Lord, Lord Chamberlain, 291 ; service, 293 Hyabans, the, in Florida, 26 IDIAQUES, DON JUAN DE, secretary of the Council of Spain, 59 Imprest, 222 ;/. Indies campaign (1585-6): events leading to, viii, ix; popularity of, ix • plan of, xiv ; not a mere raid, id. ; detailed plan of, 69- JOLLEY 74 ; narrative of, 1-27 ; its authorship, .xiv, 15 n. ; another narrative in Hakluyt, see ( Summary Discourse’ ; despatches relating to, see Carleill, Drake, Wynter, Edward; reports of, 51-82; effect of, on Spanish credit, 77 ; disavowed by Elizabeth, xv Ingat, intelligence by, 68 Inglesfield, Sir Francis, letter from, 51; a plot discovered at his house, 61 Inquisition, the, Parliament of Arragon will not accept, 59; Melsam imprisoned by, 63 Ireland, Spaniards expect to do most good upon, 60 ; advice to the Lord Deputy, 199 ; ships in, 222, 313 Irish merchants, trade unmolested in Lisbon, 65 Irish suspects to be disarmed and sent inland, 199 Isabella, Donna, of Spain, to be married to the Emperor’s son,6i Islands, the, = Azores, 60 Isle of Pearls, the, 72 Italian ships destroyed at Cadiz, 121 ; retaliation for, vowed, 122 Italian squadron, anxiously expected at Cartagena, xxvii, xliv; has arrived in the Straits, 139, 197. See Naples, squadron of Italian troops sent to Lisbon, 92, 197 JACKS, upon their, 178 Jal, his’ Glossaire Nautique’ quoted, 338 Jeer rope, 258 ;/. Jenkinson, Anthony, his distinguished service, 296 Jesuits, some are arrived in England, 83 ; plot of, against Drake, id. ; campaign against Elizabeth, id. n. Jesus, the, 80 John Casimir, see Casimir Johnston, Titus, 49 Joined works, 9 n. Jolley, Robert, 293 A A 354 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 JONAS Jonas, bark, despatches sent by, 49 Jones, Andro, reports from France, 67 Justices of Devon to arrest deserters, 103 KEMPE, POWLE, 293 Kent, commissioners in, to restrain export of victuals, 54, 55 Kentish stone, shot of, 331 Killigrew, H., mission to Leicester, Knollys, Sir Francis, Drake’s rearadmiral, commands the galleon Leicester, xi ; mentioned, 292 ; service, 298 Konigsberg, ropes of, 266 LAGOS, attack on galleys at, xxxv ; land demonstration at, 135, 142 Lane, Ralph, Governor of Ralegh’s colony in Virginia, 26 Lashers, 31 n. Latten, an alloy used in brass founding, 310 n. Laval, 80 and n. Law of Arms, the French King’s respect for the, 68 Lea, Robert, 55 Lee, Hugh, Levant merchant, Drake’s agreement with, 105. See 206 and n. Leicester, Earl of, supports Drake in his designs against Spanish trade, viii, 35 n. ; distrusted by the Dutch, xvi ; Governor of the United Provinces, 147 ; attempts to relieve Sluys, ib. n. ; to organise a Dutch fleet, xvii, 55, 198 ; letter to, from Ralegh, xvi ; said to have been defrauded by H awkyns, see Leicester, galleon Leicester, galleon, Fenton’s flagship in 1582, x, 242 ; repairs of, for Drake’s Indies voyage, 248 ; Drake’s rear-admiral in 1585, xi; surplus stores of, remaining at Deptford, said to have been misappropriated, 247 MANINGTON Leith, a ship of, brings intelligence, 65 Lemman, plate of, 11 Leng, Robert, his narrative in Hakluyt, xix n., xxv, xxxvi n. Lepanto, battle of, 295 Letters of marque, regulations as to, 36 ; Melsam applies for, 63 Levanters (English), their quality, xix ; squadron with Drake, xx Levanters (Sicilian) at Cartagena, xxvii Leyva, Don Alonso de, sent to organise at Cadiz, xxxviii ; his service, ib. Lieutenants of counties, precautions to be taken by, 198 Lion, the, of London, 275. See Golden Lion, Red Lion, White Lion Lisbon, preparations at, sec Armada ; troops sent to, 52, 197 ; strength of the port, xxx ; why not attacked by Drake, see Cascaes ; intelligence from, 56, 64, 193, 195 ; attempt on, in 1589, xxxiii n. Little John, the, xx, 99 London offers to fit out seven score sail, ix London squadron, commodore of, holds flag rank ex officio^ xi n., xix n. Looe, Andreas de, Parma’s agent in London, letter to, from Burghley, 146 Low Countries, the Queen has taken into her hand, 56 Lubeck merchants, 54 Lucar, his * Appendix to Tartaglia’s Colloquies,’ App. A, passim Lucca merchants, losses sustained by, at Cadiz, 121 Lynn ropes, 215, 222, 255 MAKESHIFT, the, Queen’s pinnace, xix, 98, 99, 234 Malacca, see Galleon of Malacca Malaga, victuallers at, 115; embargo at, 192 Manington, Captain, xxiv, 188 INDEX 355 MANNERS Manners, Roger, 291, 294 Manning of ships according to tonnage, 265 Manrique, Don Pedro Vique, commands galleys at Cartagena, 20 ;/. Marbella, ships at, 192 Marchant, John, with Drake in 1585, xiii ; in 1587, Platt’s sergeantmajor, xxiv ; pay of, as such, 187 ; supersedes Borough in command of the Golden Lion, 143, 151 ; discontent of her crew thereat, 147 ; representation to, by the crew, 150 ; endeavours to persuade them to return, z^., 155 ; should have used force, 151 ; returns without his ship, xl, 150 ; evidence against Borough, 156-64 Margaret and John, the, London ship, 99 ; in the * Valiant Fight,’ xix n. Margaret Bonaventure, the, 195 Margarita, in Dominica, 70 Marichurch, Isaac, master of Drake’s ship in 1587, 157 ; evidence against Borough, 157, 159 ; shaken in cross-examination, 169, 170 ; since dead, 157 n. Maroons, the, or Cimaroons, act in conjunction with Drake at St. Domingo, 79; and elsewhere formerly, ib. n., and see 72 Marshall, John, evidence, 159, 163 ; contradicted, 181 Marshalsea Prison, witnesses confined in, have been tampered with, 183 Martin, George, 160, 163, 164 Martin, William, 96 Martyn, Alderman Richard, Master of the Mint, 87 n.> 90 Maiy Katherine, the, 275 Mary Queen of Scots, her death warrant signed, xvii ; effect of her execution on the national position, ib. ; as hoped by the Catholics, 122 ; on Drake and his friends, xxiii Mary Rose, the, of London, 275 Mary Rose, the, Queen’s ship, surMOBILISATION vey of, 226 ; armament of, 302 ; complement of, 271 ; mentioned, 236, 259, 276, 283, 313 Matanzas, in Cuba, Drake cruising off, 23 Maurice of Nassau, Prince, attempts to relieve Sluys, 147 n. May, Richard, attests a document, 106 Medici galleon, see Florence, galleon of Medina Sidonia, Duke of, orders to, xxxvi ; brings troops to Cadiz from San Lucar, 119 Melsam, William, intelligence by, 61 ; and petition to the Council, ib. Merchant adventurers, the, Drake’s relations with, 89 ; his agreement with, in 1587, 103 ; victualled out of the stores taken at Cadiz, 145 ; their request for share of the prize taken by Wynter’s pinnace, ib.^ and see 251 ; for share of the proceeds of the voyage, ib. n. Merchant Royal, the, admiral of the London squadron, xviii, 99 n. in the action of 1586, 161 n. sick crew of, sent home, 141 Borough on board of, 175 Merchant ships, list of, fit for the Queen’s service, 275 Merlin, the, Queen’s pinnace, surveyed, 229 ; complement of, 272 ; armament of, 308 ; mentioned, 241, 262, 277, 283, 313 Mexico city, port of, see San Juan de Ulua Mexico fleet has arrived in Spain, Mildmay, Sir Walter, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 254 Minion, a gun, App. A Minion, the, London ship, xii, xx, xxi Mobilisation, papers relating to, 2 58 93 ; partial, for defence of the Narrow Seas, xv, 269 and n. See also 276, 279, 282 Mobilisation, Spanish, paralysed by Drake’s occupation of St. Vincent, xxv, and see Armada A A 2 356 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 MOJANES Mojanes (guns), 319 Monck, George (1653), and councils of war, 124 n. Monson, Sir William, quoted, xxxix, xliii ; as a military critic, 328; list of ordnance given by, ib. Monzon, Philip at, 59 ; parliament held at, ib. Moon, the, 312 n. 5 Moone, Edward, 292 Moone, Thomas, commands the Francis, xi, 45 n. Moors, the (Muros in Galicia), 2 More, James, 292 Morlaix, intelligence from, 76, 78,80 Morris pikes, 30 n. Mortars, 316, and see App. A Mounting of guns, M.L., 330 ; B.L., 333 Mummering, 67 and n. Murderer, a class of mortar, q.v. Muscovy Company, the, xlii n. Muscovy cordage, 250, 255, 266 Musket, a B.L. gun, 301 #., 332 NAMES, note on spelling of, 92 n. Naples, squadron of: importance attached to its arrival, xliii ; Cadiz division to sail without awaiting, xliv Narborough, see Nuremberg Narrow Seas, the, defence of, see Mobilisation Narva, action at, see Borough; newly opened as a port, 216 «., 296 Naval rank, note on, 125 n. Navarre, the King of: money advanced to, 53 ; league against, 54 ; his German mercenaries, 53, 80 Navy Lists, 270-72, 283, 284, 313, See also 224-31 Negro king, the, 53 Netherlands, see Dutch, Leicester, Low Countries Newfoundland fishing fleet, destroyed by Bernard Drake, xxix ; will not sail in 1585, 58 ; no news of, 61 PALLAS Newhaven (Havre), a ship of, brings news of Drake, 80 Newman, payment to, 96 Newporte, Christopher, signs evidence, 160, 163 New Spain, flota of, 60 n. ; ships of, burnt at Cadiz, 120 n. New Year’s gift, San Domingo yielded as a, 15 ; a prize so-called burnt, 22 Nicholls, Philip, Drake’s chaplain, xxiv; endorses evidence given against Borough, 169 Nombre de Dios reported taken, 66, 76, and see 72 Nonpareil, the, late Philip and Mary, 283 ; new built, 229, 284 n. ; armament of, 303 ; mentioned, 234, 236, 259, 270, 276, 284 »., 313 Norton, Robert, his * Gunner’ quoted, 29 «., 90 n., App. A, passim Nuremberg (Narborough) culverins, 321 OFFICERS, lax discipline amongst, 124 n. ; pay of, 288-91 Oporto, old name of, 107 n. Oquendo, Don Miguel de, organising a Guipuzcoan squadron, xxvi Ordnance, indenture of, delivered to Drake, 27-32 ; reports on, 300-8, 309-11 ; required for new ships, 312 ; English, superiority of, over the Spanish, 118, 119; Spanish, captured in the Indies campaign, valued, 90-4 ; monograph on the subject, App. A Ordnance Department, note on, 2.7 n. Ortel, brings communications from the States of Holland, 54 Ostend to be victualled, 54; Parma threatens, 147 PADILLA, see Santa Gadea 1 Pallas Armata,’ see Turner Sir James INDEX 357 PALMA Palma, Drake attempts to surprise, 6, 7 n. Palmer, Sir Henry, 292 ; his service, 296 Panama, Drake to capture, xiv, 72 ; reported taken, 66 Pantalarea, in the Straits, action off, 161 ;/. Pantero-Pantera, quoted, 339 Paris, John, signs evidence 159, 163 Parker, Captain, sent home with despatches, xxxiii n. ; inspired with fear of galleys, 160, 161 ; appealed to by Borough, 177, 180; his pay, 187 ; mentioned, xxiv Parker, Martin, disbursements by, 95, 96 Parma, Duke of, negotiations with, 146-9 ; besieging Sluys, ib. ; his losses there, 147 n. ; English rebels with, 149 ; his hostile preparations, 198 Passages, Oquendo at, xxvi Passavolante, a gun, 319, 324 Paston, Clement, 292 • his service, 295 Paulet, Sir Amyas, 169 and ;/. Pay of the regular forces engaged in the 1587 campaign, 185-91 ; maximum rate of, 258-62 ; propriety of increasing, 281,282 ; of officers, 285, 286 ; of ship keepers, 282-4. See 85 «., 236, 237, 272-4, 277, 278 ; and note on the whole subject, 286-91 Pay, Spanish troops had despaired of receiving, 194 Pelham, Mr., will not undertake an official mission, 55 Pelican, a gun, 324 Periers, 316 Perrot, Sir John, 292 ; service, 294 Peru, produce of, xliv, 51, 60 Pett, Peter, shipwright, Hawkyns reported a partner with, 208, 222 ; will be undone by him, 220 ; disagreement with him, 232, 250; survey of ships, 224-31 ; ships building by, 313, 314 Pew, Robert, xiii PORTSMOUTH Philip II. of Spain: his position regarding his colonies, vii; and consequent dilemma, viii; lays an embargo on English corn ships, ix, 34, 43; preparations for invading England, see Armada ; confused by Drake’s tactics, and contradictory orders issued by, xxviii, xxxviii-ix, xliii ; does not realise his unpreparedness for war, xxxii; his illness, 59 ; league against Protestantism, 61 ; has more friends in England than the Queen, 63 ; such a cooling to, as never happened since he was King of Spain, 76; his beard singed at Cadiz, xxv ; stop him now, and stop him ever, 109 ; Catholics will yield England to, without bloodshed, 195 Philip and Mary, the, see Nonpareil Phillips, John, evidence of, 160, 163, 164 Pimentel, Don Diego de, at Cartagena, xxvii; orders to, xxxvi ; reports from Cadiz, 122 Pinnaces, i «., 5 n.^ 340, 341 Plat = plan, chart, 143 Platt, Anthony, xiii; lieutenantgeneral commanding land forces, xxiv; pay of, as such, 187 ; said to have intimidated witnesses, 183; evidence, 157, 159, 160, 163 Policornus, Ember, a letter to, 57 Pontevedra, 45 Poole, William, xxiv ; his evidence against Borough, 157, 159, 163; his pay, 187 Pope, the, bulls of, 40 ; sends troops to Lisbon, 52, 62 ; a member of the League, 63, 68 Popinjay, the, pinnace, 312 n. 10 Port pieces, mounting of, 29 n.; classified, 331 Port Royal near Cadiz, 113 Porte, the, Drake’s negotiations with, xvi. See 95 n. Porto I3 raya burnt, 12 Portsmouth, fleet to concentrate at, xviii, 55 358 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 PORTUGAL Portugal, conquest of, its effect on Spanish naval power, viii; discontent in, 69 ; Spaniards in, will forswear their master, 132. See Antonio, Don Portugal base, see Base Portuguese, the, will resist a landing at Cascaes, xxxi-n. ; Drake’s conciliatory treatment of, 162 Post, the, pinnace, 100 Powell, Anthony, Carleill’s sergeant-major, xi; his death, 25 and 11. Powell, John, Surveyor of the Ordnance, 309 Prentices, mutinous disposition of, 83 Prest = recruiting money, 88 n. Pretend = seek, desire, 75 n. Primrose, the (Hawkyns’s), daring escape from Bilbao, ix ; viceadmiral in 1585, x; experiences heavy weather, 5, 27 ; repairs of, 257 ; mentioned, 275 Privy Council, see Council Projectiles, note on, 335 Protestant religion, free exercise of, in the Netherlands demanded, or no peace, 148 Provengals, 81 n. Provost-marshal necessary in war time, 213 Puntales in Cadiz harbour, 163, 174, 176 QUARLES, JAMES, Baeshe’s successor as surveyor of the victuals, 238 n. Quarter-gunners, 286 n. Queenborough men on the Golden Lion, 153 Queen’s ships, with Drake in 1587, 99. See Navy Lists RAGUSA, and Ragusans, see Argosy Rainbow, the, built on galleasse lines, xix and n. ; but classed as a galleon, 313 n. ; at Cadiz, see Bellingham ; surveyed, 228 Ralegh, Carew, 292 j service, 296 Ralegh, George, 292 ; service, 298 ROTA Ralegh, John, 292 ; service, 298 Ralegh, Sir Walter, procures leave for Drake to go to the Netherlands, xvi; his Virginia colonists brought home by Drake, 26 ; the Ark purchased from, 257 ; his reported agreement with Hawkyns and Chapman, ib. ; mentioned, 291 ; his service, 294 Rampires, 16 n. Range finding, 331 Raymond, George, sent home with a prize, 141 ; service, 141 ?z., 299 ; at Cadiz, 162, 181 ; mentioned, 292 Reade, William, examined, 167 Rebadochino, a gun, 320 Recalde, Don Juan Martinez de, appreciation of, xxvi ; cruising off St. Vincent, ib. ; orders to, intercepted, xxviii; escapes Drake into Lisbon, xxix Recusants in England, order to be taken with, 198 Red Lion, the, 275 Refresh = revictual, 97 n. Reprisals, see Letters of Marque Revenge, the, survey of, 228 ; complement, 271 ; armament, 304; mentioned, 241, 259, 276, 283, 313 Reverse = recoil of guns, 329 Rewards, system of, supersedes that of dead shares, 289. See note on Pay, 286-91 Rich, Barnaby, to strengthen Corfe Castle, 55 ; mentioned, 293 Rio de la Hacha may be taken, 7i Rivers, John, commands the Vantage, xii; evidence, 157, 159 Roberts, John, work on gunnery (i 639) quoted, 325 Robinet, a gun, 318 and App. A Rochelle, ships victual at, 39 ; English ships seized to serve against, 77 Rock of Lisbon, the (Cape Roca), 107 Rohan, Re’ne’, Vicomte de, 80 and n. Roscoff, news from, 78, 80 Rota, point of, in Cadiz harbour, 178 INDEX 359 ROUEN KUU1LJN Rouen, consignment of wool to, 61 Rowbarges classed as pinnaces, SARAGOSA 339 SAETTIAS, note on, 81 n. Safe get = preserve, retain, 62 Sagres, Cape, landing at, against Borough’s advice, 127, 155 ; fort of, taken by assault, 137, 142 St. Antonio, Cape (Cuba), Drake off, 23 ; strategic importance of the station, ib. n. St. Augustine (Florida) captured and burnt, 25 St. Christopher’s, 14 St. Jean de Luz, a ship purporting to be of, taken, 39 St. John, the, Spanish galleon, 196 St. Julian’s, fort protecting the Tagus, xxx, xxxiii. See Cascaes St. Malo, suspicious ships of, 40, 140 St. Mark, the, Spanish galleon, 196 St. Martin, the, Spanish galleon, 196 St. Mary Port (Cadiz harbour), 62, 153, 174, 177, 192 St. Michael’s (Azores), Santa Cruz’ victory at, xxvi; see Santa Cruz, Strozzi ; Drake captures a valuable prize at, xli; see San Felipe St. Sebastian, a ship of, captured, 2, 39 ; intelligence from, 57 St. Vincent, Cape, Drake resolves to seize, xxiv ; Borough protests, /£., xlvii, 126 ; Drake has instructions to cruise off, but warned against landing at, 126, 128 ; importance of the station for strategic purposes, xxv, 126 ;z., 139 ; for refitting and refreshing, xxxiv, 139; forts protecting, see Sagres ; Spanish fleet to concentrate at, xxxvii, xliv, and see 6 Sakers, guns of the culverin class, 322, App. A Saltash, sale of the Carrack’s cargo at, 205 Samaritan, the, of London, 275 Sampson, Captain, negotiates at Bayona, 4, 43 ; in a skirmish j there, 46 ; service of, 43 ;/. | San Domingo, capital of Espaiiola, 18; capture of, 14-18, 79, 82; mentioned, xiv, 13, 56, 71, 76 San Domingo, in Santiago (Cape Verde), sacked, n ; by the French, ib. San Felipe, the, Portugal carrack from the East Indies, capture of, by Drake, xlii ; breeds a marvellous grief in Spain, 194; effect of, on the English East India trade, xlii ;/.; intrinsic value of her cargo, xlii ; cargo to be sold, 199; Commissioners’ report on sale, 200-6; prize money for capture, 287 San Juan de Ulua, the port of Mexico : Hawkyns’s and Drake’s disaster at, 152, 253 ;/. San Lucar, the port of Seville, xxvii, 142 n. ; convoys start from, 60 n. 3; embargo at, 68; Medina Sidonia at, 117; intelligence from, 56,58 Santa Cruz, Alvaro de Bazan, Marquis of, Commander-in-Chief of the Armada, 60; his victory at Terceira, xxvi, 35 n. orders to, to convoy the Indies fleet, xxviii; to join the Cadiz division at Cape St. Vincent, xxxvii; his inactivity at Cascaes, xxxi, 138, 143 ; has no English prisoners there, xxxii, 132 } – eager to meet Drake, xxxvii; pursues him to the Azores, xv, xliv, 193, 194 ; a galleon of, burnt at Cadiz, 107, 113, 120 ;z., 122 ; honour forbids him to meddle with English pirates, 122 ; generosity to an English seaman, 196 Santa Gadea, Martin de Padilla, Conde de, galley squadron commanded by, xxxv, 108 ;/.; to command a concentration movement, xxxviii Santa Katarina (Cadiz harbour), 177 Santa Marta (Spanish main), 71 Santiago (Cape Verde), capture of, 8-10, 70; reported, 65 Saragosa, Philip at, 58 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 SAVOY Savoy, the Duke of, a member of the League, 61 Scant (of the wind) •-= drop, 49, 115 Scipio and Hannibal, 134 Scotland and the Spanish scheme of invasion, 63, 149, 194 Scout, the, with Drake, xii ; survey of, 229 ; complement, 271 ; armament, 308 ; mentioned, 262, 276, 283,313 Sea Dragon, the, xi ;z., 248, 249. See Tiger Seamen, pay of, 287. See Pay Sergeant-major, xii, xxiv Serpentine, a gun of the culverin class, 324 Setuval, embargo at, 62, 192 Seven Stars, the, 312 n. 9 Seville, preparations at, 52 ; merchants of, in a great mummering, 67 ; bank of, broke, 77 ; port of, see San Lucar Seymour, Lord Henry, 291, 294 Sharpe or Shorte, an English merchant at Bayona, 42, 44 Sheathing of hulls introduced by Hawkyns, 226 n. Sheffield, Lord, 291, 294 Shells, shrapnel, 335 ; and illuminant, ib. Sheriffe, John, his work on ordnance referred to, 325 and App. A, passim Ship keeper’s pay, 282 Ships, Queen’s, see Navy Lists ; reports on, by Pett and Baker, 224-31 ; by Wynter and Holstok, 241 ; classification of, 284 ;/., 340. See App. B Shivers, shyvers, or sheaves, in gunnery, 29 ;/., 233 Shoppley’s ship, 275 Shorte, see Sharpe Shot = troops with small arms, 46 Sicilian troops, xxvii, xxviii, xxxvii Sidney, Sir Philip, joint master of the ordnance, 33 Simoneta (1447), quoted, 338 Siren, a gun of the culverin class, 324 Skallops, in gunnery, 32 n. Skynner, Augustine, 68 STATES Sling, a B.L. perier, 318, 331 Sluys, siege of, 147 Smeriglio, a gun, 320 Smythe, Thomas, farms London customs, 87 ;/., 95 ; on the Audit Commission, 1586,86-96; mentioned, 246 Snarke, Hans, a Baltic pirate, captured at Narva, 296 Solomon, the Levant Company’s ship, xx; brings news from Spain, 66; at Cadiz, 163 ; mentioned, 99, 275 South Sea, Drake’s raid into, in 1574, viii. See Panama Southwell, a Jesuit, 83 Spain becomes a first-rate naval power, viii ; ruin of, preached, 66 ; hatred of, in Portugal, see Portugal Spanish Company, the, 63 Spanish party temporarily predominant in the Council, xxiii; Drake alludes to, 104 Spark, Sir John, brings intelligence, 66 Speedwell, the, xx; parts company, 45 and n. ; charges for refitting, 91, 96; with Drake in 1587, 99 Spenser, William, Drake’s secretary, 112 and ;/. Spert, Henry, 292 Spindelowe, Henry,’xxiv; his advice given at Cadiz, 162 ; tampering with witnesses, 184 ; personal animosity against Borough, ib. ; evidence, 159, 163, 164; pay of, i87 Spy, the, Queen’s pinnace, xix, xx ; takes Marchant off the Golden Lion, xl, 150; new building, 312 72. n ; mentioned, 99, 186, 284 Squior, Walker, brings intelligence from Lisbon, 52 Stafford, Lord, 291 Stafford, Sir Edward, Ambassador to Paris : Walsyngham to, 106 Stallenge, William, xxiv, 187 Stanton, Richard, xiii States of Holland, negotiations with, 54, 198 INDEX STEELE Steele, James, Flick’s chaplain, signs depositions, 159 ; his bad reputation in London, 176 Steerage, position of, 127 Stillings, Dr., 123 Stock fowlers, B.L. guns, 331 Stone shot, weight of, 331 Stonne, Thomas, intelligence by, 6.4 Stripes, with, = by force, 41 Strozzi, Filippo, commands a French expedition to the Azores under Don Antonio’s flag, 35 ; defeated there by Santa Cruz, ib. 11.) xxvi ( Summary Discourse,’ of Drake’s Indies voyage, xiv; its authorship and publication, ib. ; translations of, ib., xvi; referred to, 1-27 notes, 40 n., 45 n., 49 n. Sun, the, 284, 312 n. 7 Susan, the, of London, xx, 99 ; in the ‘ worthy fight’ in the Straits, 161 n. ; mentioned, 275 Susanna and the Elders, 175 Sussex, coast of, should be especially guarded, 109 ; timber in, depleted owing to iron working, 298 Sutton, Samuel, evidence, 160, 163, 164 Swallow, the, Queen’s ship, with Drake in 1585, xii; survey of, 227 ; complement, 271 ; armament, 306 ; mentioned, 241, 260, 276, 283, 313 Swan, the, 45 n. Swiftsure, the, Queen’s ship, survey, 227 ; complement, 271 ; armament, 305 ; mentioned, 241, 260, 276, 283, 313 Sydenham, Humfrey, xxiv; expresses confidence in Drake, 161 ; probably a kinsman of his by marriage, 157 ;/.; evidence, 157, 159, 161, 163, 164; pay, 188 TAFFETA, a stuff, 203 n. 4 Tagus, the, defences of, see Cascaes, Lisbon TORRE Talbot, bark, xii ; shot through the sails, 6 ; loses her cable in a storm, 45 ; new one delivered to 96 ; not in Navy Lists, 314 n. ; but repaired out of timber at Deptford, 257 ; mentioned, 236 Tallaunt, Roger, 96 Tanlay, a Huguenot leader, 80 and n. Tartaglia’s Colloquies, see Lucar Taylor, bark, of London, 275 Tedescos, see German troops Terceira, Santa Cruz’ victory at, see Santa Cruz, Strozzi ; French ship that was taken at, burnt at San Lucar, 58 Ternate, commercial treaty with, xlii n. Territory, whether colonies are, vii Thomas Bonaventure, the, Levant Company’s ship, xx Thomas Drake, the, Drake’s, xx, 45 and n. Thomas, John, 293 Thomas, Samuel, signs depositions, 159, 163, 164 Thornton, Captain, a ship keeper in Ireland, 222 Throgmorton, R., a letter from, to Gifford, 121, 123 n. Tierra Firme, Golden Castile, or the Spanish main, 18 n. ; Drake at, see Cartagena Tiger, the, Queen’s ship : old ship sold out of the service, xi;/. ; and replaced by the purchase of the Sea Dragon, which is probably so renamed, 249 ?/., 271 n. ; survey of, 229 ; armament of, 307 ; mentioned, 241, 261, 276 Tiger, the ship commanded by Carleill, xi; whether a London ship, possibly the old Tiger, ib. n. ; Admiral of the pinnace squadron, 5 »., 45 Tippet, . John, evidence against Borough, 159, 161, 163, 164; to reconnoitre the Biscay ports, 197 Tonnage, charter by, 237 ; rules for ascertaining, 263 Torre Veijo, fort defending the Tagus, xxx 362 THE SPANISH WAR 1585-7 TORTURE Torture, examination of prisoners by, 10 and n. Tower, the, Ordnance office at, 28, 212 Tower Hill, Admiralty office on, 241 ;/. Train (treynes) = train oil, 57 n. Tramontana, the, 236, 284 ; building, 312 Triumph, the, survey of, 225 • complement of, 270 ; armament of, 301 ; mentioned, 241, 258, 276, 283 313 Trust, the, pinnace, 236, 284, 312 n. 10 Turk, the, charge to, 95 and n. Turner, Jeromy, 293 Turner, Nicholas, a letter to, 80 Turner, Sir James, his ‘ Pallas Armata'(i683) quoted, 16 n. 9 327 Tuscany, the Grand Duke of, alliance with Philip and the League, xxvi, 61 n. ; galleon of, see Florence, galleon of Tyson, Gilbert, reports, 193 UBALDINO, PETRUCCIO : his account of the Armada campaign inspired by Drake, xxx ; quoted, xxxii, xlv Ufano, Diego, 333 Ulysses and the Siren, 208 United Provinces, the, see Dutch, Leicester, Low Countries Unity, the, 236 Upnor Castle, 209, 211 VALENTIA, notables of, meet Philip, 58 Value = valour, 136 n. Vanguard, the, survey of, 228; building, 312 «. Vantage, the, xii Varney, John, commands the bark Benjamin, xii Vassel, John, 195 Vaughan, John, captain of the Drake, xii, 293, 299 Velez, 192 WEIGHT Venice, bank of, 77 ; merchants of, losses at Cadiz, 121 Viana (Vianna), burnt, 2 Vice-Admiral, note on the rank of, 125 n. Victory, the, survey of, 225 ; complement of, 270; armament of, 301 ; mentioned, 241, 276, 283, 313 Victualling charges, 278 Vigo, Drake at, 3 ; perhaps weatherbound there, 49 #., 51 ; booty taken at, 45,46, and see Bayona Violet, the, 275 Virata, Conde de, 59, 60 Virginia colonists return home with Drake, 26 WAAD, SIR WILLIAM, a clerk of the Privy Council, 122, 195 Walford, T., victual to be sent to, at Ostend, 54 Walsyngham, Sir Francis, Secretary of State, 33 n. ; his consistent support of Drake, viii, 35 n. ; powerless single-handed against the Spanish party, xxiii ; Drake’s personal devotion to, 104 n. Despatches to, from Sir G. Carey, 33 ; from Carleill, 39 ; from Drake, 107, 131, 140 ; from Fenner, 97, 113 ;/., 134; from Edward Wynter, 49. Despatch by, to Sir E. Stafford, 106 War, a state of, not existing in 1585, vii; Philip not prepared for, in 1586, xv ; reprisals can be carried on without declaration of, 35> 36 Ward, Luke, 293 ; service, 299 ; narrative of Fenton’s voyage, quoted, 247 n. Warwick, Earl of, Master of the Ordnance, 27, 33 n. Waterhouse, Frobiser’s lieutenant, killed, 24 Watts, John, commands the Margaret and John, 99 n. ; agreement with Drake, 105 Weight of guns, 326-9 INDEX 363 WHALING Whaling fleet, the Spanish, 57, 58 ; no news of, 61 Wheat, price of, at San Sebastian, 58 ; seized in Xeres, 62 ; price of, at Lisbon, 65 Wheatly, Anthony, 195 White Bear, the, survey of, 225 ; complement of, 270 ; armament of, 301 ; mentioned, 241, 258, 276, 283, 313 White Lion, the (Howard’s), xviii, xx, 99, 163, 181 Whyte, Henry, commands the Sea Dragon, xii Wignall, Robert, pilot of the Elizabeth Bonaventure, 188 Williams, John, evidence of, 158, 159 Williams, Sir Roger, his defence of Sluys, 147 n. Wilson, John, evidence of, 159 Windage of guns, note on, 325 Wiseman, intelligence by, 68 Wolley, John, Latin Secretary of State, despatch to, from Drake, 109 ; mentioned, 169 Woodward, John, news to, 68 Wylson, a rope maker, 221 Wynter, Edward, commands the Aid, xi ; despatch to Walsyngham, 49 ; mentioned, 292, 297 Wynter, John, 292, 297 Wynter, Sir William, a veteran officer, 294 ; Master of the OrdZEELAND nance until 1569 or after, 27 n. ; Surveyor of the Ships, 87 n. ; on the Audit Commission for proceeds of Indies Voyage, 92 n. Reports by, as Surveyor of the Ships, to Burghley, 207, 232,240. His relations with Hawkyns narrated by a hostile critic, 242-55 ; ‘ what a dissembling knave J is Hawkyns, 246 ; the two^ reconciled by Howard, 251 ; possible reason for their differences, 246 n. ; and for their reconciliation, 251 ; a pinnace of, takes a valuable prize, 251, and see Hawkyns, John, base son of Wynter, William, commands the Minion in 1588, 100; the Foresight in 1587, 298 XERES, wheat impounded at, 62 YONGE, JOHN, 293; his service, 299 York, Archbishop of, letters to be sent to, 55 Yorke, Gilbert, 292 ; service, 298 Yucatan Channel, 23 n. ZEBRATANA, a gun, 319 Zeeland, ships of, 52, 55, 101 ; merchandise for, from San Lucar, 57
Julian Corbett was born on 12 November 1854 was educated at Marlborough College and Trinity College, Cambridge where he took a first class degree in law, becoming a barrister in the Middle Temple in 1877, practising until 1882, when he turned to writing, starting with historical novels about the Tudor period. He died on 21 September 1922.
In 1896 he accepted an invitation from John Knox Laughton to edit a volume of documents on the Spanish War of 1585-87, and he soon became known as one of the Royal Navy’s leading intellectuals. From 1901 to 1922 he wrote regularly on naval strategy and history. From 1902 he lectured at the Royal Naval College Greenwich (founded in 1900). In 1903 he gave the Ford Lectures at Oxford University. In 1905 he became the Admiralty’s unofficial adviser on strategy, serving as secretary of the Cabinet Historical Office. He was knighted in 1917, and awarded the Chesney Gold Medal in 1914.
Like Mahan Corbett saw naval warfare as part of a nation’s larger policies, and was influenced by Clausewitz and Laughton. Unlike Mahan he placed less emphasis on fleet battle, which upset many in the Royal Navy. He set out to formalize the theories and principles of naval warfare, focusing on the art of naval warfare, defining the differences between land and naval warfare. His principles of sea control, focus on the enemy, and manoeuvre for tactical advantage still form the foundation of today’s naval manoeuvre warfare. Through his lectures at the Naval War College Corbett was trying to convey to those attending his ideas on limited war and strategic defence, which were very different from the accepted norms of naval theory and strategy of the time.
His publications include
• Papers Relating to the Navy during the Spanish War, 1585-87 (Navy Records Society, 1898).
• Drake and the Tudor Navy, with a History of the Rise of England as a Naval Power (Longmans, 1898).
• The Successors of Drake (Longmans, 1900).
• England in the Mediterranean: A Study of the Rise and Influence of British Power within the Straits, 1603 – 1713 (Longmans, 1904).
• Fighting Instructions: 1530 – 1816 (Navy Records Society, 1905).
• England in the Seven Years War (Longmans, 1907).
• Signals and Instructions, 1761-1794( Navy Records Society 1909).
• The Campaign of Trafalgar (Longmans, 1910).
• Some Principles of Maritime Strategy (Longmans, 1911).
• Private Papers of George, Second Earl Spencer, First Lord of the Admiralty, 1794 – 1801 2 volumes (Navy Records Society, 1914).
• The League of Nations and the Freedom of the Seas (O.U.P., 1918).
• History of the Great War Naval Operations, Based on Official Documents, Volumes I and II (Longmans 1920 and 1921).
Writings about Corbett include
• D M Schurman The Education of a Navy: the development of British Naval Strategic Thought 1867 – 1914 (Cassell, 1965).
• J Goldrick and J Hattendorf Mahan is not Enough: Proceedings of a Conference on the Works of Sir Julian Corbett and Admiral Sir Herbert Richmond (Naval War College Press, 1993).
• Eric Grove (ed) Some Principles of Maritime Strategy (Naval Institute Press, 1988).
• D M Schurman Julian S Corbett, 1854 – 1922: Historian of British Maritime Policy from Drake to Jellicoe (Cassell, 1981).
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